Postal Strike and Reorganization: Reinventing the System
||“Nobody ever notices postmen somehow.”
The 1970 postal strike
began as a wild cat strike called by local New York leaders of
the National Association of Letter Carriers (NALC). It began on March
18, 1970(1) and led to the first national postal stoppage in U.S. history. Approximately
200,000 workers participated in the strike. It was the first
and largest walkout ever against the Federal Government.(2) The strike led to emergency negotiations between management and
national postal unions. As a result, postal workers receive the
largest pay raise in postal history. Nor did striking postal
workers received any penalties for their actions.
The strike began in New York City, and by the end of the week grew to involve postal workers from more than 30 major cities.(3) Uniformly low wages were cited as the crucial issue. The workers argued for increased salary and retirement benefits, among other things.
The effects of the strike were
far reaching. At the time of the strike the postal service handled
approximately 270 million pieces of mail daily. Everything from personal
letters to draft notices were sent through the mail. One side
effect of the strike and the inability of the New York draft board to mail
out notices was that approximately 9,000 New York men had a temporary reprieve
from the draft. Another government branch was about to
run into problems as well. The nation's 1970 census questionnaires were scheduled to
be mailed out. In an effort to get the mail moving again, President
Nixon called in the National Guard to help process mail in many major city
President Richard Nixon’s Postmaster General, Winton M. Blount, was committed to reforming the Postal Service by adopting the recommendations made by members of the 1968 Kappel Commission. The
Commission had called for the creation of a government-owned corporation
which would have the power to set postage rates.(5) Fearful of losing the security of their federal jobs, which they foresaw as a result of the Commission, postal unions used their collective bargaining power to persuade Postmaster General Winton M. Blount to reconsider his position.
Although an agreement was not reached between the Nixon Administration and postal unions, the government called for postal workers to return to work before salary negotiations would take place. This expectation, however, was met with resistance by postal employees. Union members refused to return to work without any guarantee of congressional action. While President Nixon acknowledged that the postal workers had legitimate grievances, he declared that the government would not negotiate with the postal workers so long as they continued to strike.
The strike ended when union officials, including NALC President James Rademacher, convinced the strikers that union officials would secure their best interests through negotiations and that strikers should return to work. In response to this show of good faith, the Nixon Administration and the postal unions agreed on an immediate and retroactive pay hike, with another increase to follow after the completion of postal reorganization. The Postal Reorganization Act of 1970, included Postmaster General Blount’s provisions.(6) These provisions included an independent
financing authority, removal of the postal system from the political realm in an
effort to ensure management continuity, and the guarantee of
collective bargaining for postal unions. The Act created a corporate structured
agency, the United States Postal Service (USPS) and gave postal unions the
right to negotiate on wages, benefits, and working conditions. The
Act was signed into law by President Nixon on August 12, 1970.(7)
1) The United States Postal Service, An American History 1775-2006, 39.
2) “The Strike That Stunned The Country” Time Magazine, Mar 30, 1970.
5) The United States Postal Service, 39.