At the suggestion of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Post Office Department opened a national competition in 1937 to design the first stamp in a new series of definitive stamps to be known as the 'Presidential Series'. Artist Elaine Rawlinson of New York City won the contest. She based her design for the 1-cent stamp on a bust of George Washington’s profile by the sculptor Jean Antoine Houdin (1741-1828. It became the basis of the designs for the rest of the 1938 Presidential Series, also affectionately known as the ‘Prexies' or the 'Fifth Bureau Issue’. Each design of the 1938 Presidential Series included a bust profile of a president and the dates of his term(s) as president. The stamps depict all twenty-nine presidents who had died before 1938, including many who had never before appeared on a postage stamp. In addition to the twenty-nine presidents appearing on these stamps, Benjamin Franklin appeared on the half-cent stamp; Martha Washington appeared on the 1.5-cent stamp; the White House appeared on the 4.5-cent stamp. Thus, the Presidential Series contained thirty-two stamps issued in sheet format. The stamps were in use for over eighteen years, from 1938 into the mid-1950s.