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Transportation Issue (1981-1995)

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5-cent Circus Wagon single

On May 18, 1981, the USPS broke an eight-year-old custom by issuing a coil stamp with its own unique design picturing a surrey from the 1890s. Until then, stamps in convenient coil rolls were always of the same design as definitive stamps that were in circulation at the time. There were to be fifty more coil stamps issued through the next fifteen years, each depicting a different conveyance of transportation, ranging from a 1770s carreta, a Southwestern term for a two-wheeled cart, to a 1933 Stutz Bearcat automobile. Conveyances depicted are as entertaining as a 1900s circus wagon, as somber as a 1860s ambulance, and as utilitarian as a 1920s tractor.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed all the Transportation coil stamps, except for three that were printed by private contractors in the 1990s. Line engraved intaglio printing method was used though a few of the last ones were gravure printed.

Transportation stamps exist in an unprecedented array of denominations. Never before had stamps been issued in so many fractional cent values, providing face values exactly matching the rates for various categories of third-class (bulk rate) and quantity-discount mail. Over the life of the issue, there were numerous postal rate changes in first class, bulk, and non-profit bulk mail resulting in new Transportation stamp values being issued.

One of the more fascinating features of the Transportation coils is the tiny plate numbers printed at the bottom of stamps. Stamps with these numbers, appearing at intervals of twenty-four, forty-eight, or fifty-two stamps, depending upon the press employed, are known as Plate Number Coils (PNCs).

The Transportation issue produced a large number of paper, gum, tagging and especially pre-cancel varieties. Pre-cancels were intended for use on bulk mailings that would bypass canceling equipment. Some pre-cancels varieties consisted of overprinted pairs of black horizontal lines, with or without the words of a Service Inscription, while on others the lines and/or Service Inscriptions were an integral part of the stamp design.

The Transportation coils witnessed several interesting features. Early Transportation stamps are distinguished by a comparatively small value, being followed by a 'c'. Later groups express values in larger sized numbers, and lack either a 'c' or a '¢'. The 4-cent Steam Carriage has its value preceded by a zero, being expressed as '04' rather than simply '4', and the 5-cent Circus Wagon and 5-cent Canoe stamps also had their values expressed in this manner. In 1991, the USPS no longer sought to exactly match rates with the face value of stamps; there would be no more fractional values. Instead, 5-cent stamps (for bulk non-profit third class) or 10-cent stamps (for first class presort and regular third class) would be used, and any difference between the face value of the stamp used and the actual postage rate would be paid at the time of mailing. In 1995 the USPS began adding the year date to the lower left corner of stamps, a feature on three Transportation stamps.

Encyclopedia of United States Stamps and Stamp Collecting
May 16, 2006

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1-cent Omnibus coil single

Issued at the national convention of the American First Day Cover Society in Arlington, Virginia, on August 19, 1983, the 1-cent Omnibus was the lowest value of the Transportation Coil Series. The stamp depicts a horse-drawn omnibus, the urban mass transit vehicle of the 1880s. Intended as a change-maker for use in vending machines, it paid no particular postage rate.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed the Omnibus on the Cottrell press, which used two curved plates to form the printing cylinder, leaving a crack between the plates. The plate number was placed beneath the last stamp to the right in each row. When ink flowed into the crack between the plates, a vertical line was printed immediately to the right of stamp with the plate number. The Bureau used six plates for the issued stamp. Alternating plate numbers appear every twenty-four stamps. Plate number 1 was paired with 2; plate 3 with 4; and plate 5 with 6. Only plate numbers 1 and 2 appear on first day covers. There were 790 million of the 1-cent Omnibus released in coils of five hundred and three thousand, all with overall tagging. There were 109,463 first day covers.

Thomas Myers

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2-cent Locomotive single

Issued at Chicago’s Union Station on May 20, 1982, the 2-cent Locomotive stamp depicts a steam locomotive with a distinctive funnel-shaped smokestack. The smokestack replicates that of the Central Pacific's steam engine Jupiter, which was at Promontory, Utah, in 1869. The image may have been based on an engine in the Smithsonian Institution's collection. Paying no particular rate, the 2-cent Locomotive was intended for make-up postage and as a change-maker in vending machines.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed the 2-cent Locomotive on the Cottrell press in coils of five hundred and three thousand with overall tagging. There were 184 million stamps printed. Alternating plate numbers appear every twenty-four stamps. Only plate numbers 3 and 4 were available on first day covers. Plate numbers 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 were issued. Later coils paired plate 2 with plate 6 and plate 8 with plate 10. Plate 1 was printed, but all examples were shredded before leaving the Bureau. There were 290,020 first day covers.

David K. Stone of Port Washington, New York, designed the stamp. Clarence Holbert of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing modeled it, and the engravers were John S. Wallace for vignette and Robert G. Culin, Sr., for lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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3-cent Handcar coil single

The 3-cent Handcar was issued at the ROPEX stamp show in Rochester, New York, on March 25, 1983. Like the 1-cent and 2-cent values, the Handcar was intended as a change-maker in vending machines rather than to pay a particular postal rate. There were only 77,900 first day covers cancelled.

During the 1880s, Bucyrus Foundry and Manufacturing Company of Bucyrus, Ohio, manufactured the handcar shown on the stamp. Railroad crews used the handcar when fixing the line or carrying small quantities of supplies over short distances.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing issued 184 million 3-cent Handcar stamps in coils of five hundred and three thousand, all with overall tagging. The Contrell press plate numbers appear on every 24th stamp. Plates 1, 2, 3, and 4 were used. The stamps were withdrawn from philatelic sale on August 31, 1988, although they could still be purchased at some post offices for another ten years or more.

Walter Brooks of Norwalk, Connecticut, designed the stamp, which Clarence Holbert of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing modeled. Edward P. Archer engraved the vignette, and Thomas J. Bakos engraved the lettering. Both worked at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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3-cent Conestoga Wagon coil single

The first day ceremony for the Conestoga Wagon stamp was held at the fire hall in Conestoga, Pennsylvania, on Feb 29, 1988. There were 255, 203 first day covers, all with plate number 1. Issued just prior to the increase in the first-class letter rate to twenty-five cents, it was intended to be used with 22-cent stamps to make up the 25-cent rate.

Conestoga wagons were invented during the late eighteenth century. Nicknamed 'prairie schooners', they were the most important vehicles for shipping goods in their day. By the mid-1800s, long trains stretched westward across the Great Plains to the Pacific coast.

The Conestoga Wagon stamp was designed by Richard Schlect of Arlington, Virginia, and engraved by Thomas R. Hipschen and Dennis Brown, both of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

There are numerous paper, gum, and tagging varieties on the issue, none particularly scarce. The first Conestoga Wagons were printed on the B press by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing with plate 1 every fifty-two stamps, issued in coils of one hundred, five hundred, and 3,000, and all were block tagged.

Later Conestoga Wagons were printed on the C press, untagged, with a plate number every forty-eight stamps, using numbers 2, 3, 5, and 6. They were issued in coils of five hundred, 3,000, and 10,000. Plate 2 was first noted in 1992 and plate 3 in 1994. Plate 6 was found in 1995 and 5 in 1997. Toward the end of their period of use, the stamps were printed on bright paper in rolls of 10,000 with plate 5.

Thomas Myers

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4-cent Stagecoach coil single

The 4-cent Stagecoach was issued at the annual meeting of the American Philatelic Society in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on August 19, 1982. There were 152,940 first day covers. Plates 1, 2, 3, and 4 are found on first day covers. The stamp was issued with all-over tagging, primarily as a change-maker in post office vending machines. A new design featuring a larger stagecoach was issued in 1986.

The 4-cent Stagecoach also paid the rate for five-digit presort non-profit mailings. Stamps intended for this purpose were precancelled with two horizontal bars and the words “Nonprofit Org.” printed between the bars. The precancel was applied with mats applied to the press in such a way that there are gaps between the precancel bars every twelfth stamp. These precancel gaps are avidly sought by specialist collectors, usually on strips of five or seven stamps that also include the plate number. Plate numbers, both in used and in mint strips, are scarcer on the pre-canceled stamp than on those that are not precancelled. Mint strips with precancel gaps are even scarcer. The precancelled stamp was untagged.

The precancelled stamps did not appear until November 22, 1982, and the rate lasted only until January 8, 1983. The same precancelled stamps were later authorized to pay the 4.3-cent and later the 4.9-cent rate with the additional fee to be paid at the post office.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed the 4-cent Stagecoach on the Cottrell press. There were 29.4 million stamps issued in coils of five hundred or three thousand stamps. Plate numbers 1-6 were issued with plate numbers 5 and 6 being the scarcest in both mint and used condition. On the printing cylinders, plate 1 was paired with plate 2 and plate 3 with plate 4.

James Schleyer of Burke, Virginia, designed the stamp, and Clarence Holbert of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing modeled it. Kenneth R. Kipperman engraved the vignette, and Gary J. Slaght engraved the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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4.9-cent Buckboard coil single

The 4.9-cent Buckboard depicts a utilitarian, flat-bottomed wagon of the 1880s. It was issued on June 21, 1985, at the NEVPEX-TOPEX stamp show in Reno, Nevada, the same day and place as the 8.3-cent Ambulance. The two are often found together on the 338,765 first day covers cancelled that day.

The 4.9-cent stamp paid the rate for bulk mail of qualified non-profit, tax-exempt and political organizations sorted to five digits of the zip code. The rate was in effect from February 17 until December 31, 1985. The stamp was later approved for various false frankings until March 31, 1987.

Though intended for the intaglio B press, these issues were printed on the Cottrell press. Like other coil stamps printed on the Cottrell press, there is a plate juncture line to the right of the plate number. Plates 3 and 4 appear both untagged and with overall tagging; plates 1, 2, 5, and 6 are only untagged and precancelled with two parallel bars with the words "Nonprofit Org" between them. Plate numbers alternate at twenty-four stamp intervals. Tagged stamps were issued in rolls of five hundred and the untagged version in rolls of five hundred and 3,000.

William Bond of Arlington, Virginia, designed the stamp. Engraving of the vignette was done by Gary M. Chaconas of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the lettering by Robert G. Culin of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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5-cent Motorcycle coil single

The 5-cent Motorcycle of the Transportation Coil Series was issued on October 10, 1983, at the annual meeting of the Envelope Manufacturers Association of America in San Francisco, California. The stamp depicts a 1913 Model L motorcycle made by Albert Pope, who introduced bicycles to the United States in 1878. The design is based on a vehicle in the Smithsonian Institution. The motorcycle has a two-cylinder, air-cooled engine originally rated at 7-to-8 horsepower, but tests have shown that it actually produced 15.4 hp at 50 mph and had a top speed of 60 to 65 mph. Motorcyclists of the day wore dark goggles, thick leather gloves with a high cuffs, heavy coats, and high boots to protect their legs from the engine heat. There were 188,240 first day covers.

The 5-cent stamp matched no postal rate but was used as a changemaker in vending machines. It was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing on the Cottrell press with a plate number every twenty-four stamps. Plate 1 was paired with 2; and plate 3 with 4. All four plate numbers were available on the first day of issue, but plates 3 and 4 are rare. Vertical joint lines are found to the right of the plate number stamp. All stamps were block tagged.

The 5-cent Motorcycle stamp was designed by Walter Brooks of Norwalk, Connecticut. Kenneth Kipperman engraved the vignette, and Dennis Brown engraved the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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5-cent Circus Wagon single

There are three versions of the 5-cent Circus Wagon issue, one engraved and two printed by the photogravure process. The stamp illustrates a four-wheeled wagon of the sort used by many circuses as the homes for animals and performers during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Horses usually pulled the wagons, but one Ringling Brothers wagon was pulled by sixteen camels.

The engraved version of the stamp was released on Aug 31, 1990, at the annual convention of the American First Day Cover Society in Syracuse, New York. Designed by Susan Stanford of Washington, D.C., it was printed on the B press by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Gary Chaconas engraved the vignette, and Gary Slaght engraved the lettering and numerals. There were 71,806 first day covers. Plate 1 was issued both with overall tagging in coils of five hundred and 3,000 stamps. Plate 2 without tagging appeared only in coils of 3,000 stamps.

The first photogravure version of the 5-cent Circus Wagon was printed by Guilford Gravure of Guilford, Connecticut, for the American Banknote Corporation. It was released in Cincinnati, Ohio, on December 8, 1992. Printed on the Andreotti press 601 in coils of 10,000, plate numbers are spaced at intervals of twenty-four stamps. Unlike stamps printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the plate number on stamps printed by the American Banknote Corporation is preceded by the letter "A." There are three plate numbers in the format A1, A2, and A3. A3 was printed with luminescent ink. None are particularly scarce.

The second photogravure version of the 5-cent Circus Wagon is readily identifiable by the fact that the denomination appears as "5¢" rather than as "05." It was printed by Stamp Venturers on a Champlain webfed gravure press 1. The stamp was released on March 20, 1995, in Kansas City, Missouri. The year of issue appears in the lower left corner of every stamp. There were 20,835 first day covers.

The plate number appears every fourteen stamps preceded by the letter "S." Plate numbers S1 and S2 are untagged. Plate numbers S2 and S3 are printed with a UV-reactive ink. The last are found with both large and small perforation holes. The small holes are somewhat scarcer.

Thomas Myers

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5-cent Canoe coil single

The 5-cent Canoe of the Transportation Coil Series features a birch bark canoe of the sort made by the Chippewa or Ojibwa Indians of Minnesota and Wisconsin. The 5-cent Canoe stamp, along with 10-cent Tractor Trailer, reflects the new post office policy of covering all categories of first-class presort and bulk third-class mailings with just two stamps. The 5-cent Canoe was intended for all rate categories for nonprofit and bulk third-class mail. It was inscribed “Additional Nonprofit Postage Paid” to indicate that the necessary additional postage had been paid at the post office.

The stamp was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing on the C press with a plate number every forty-eight stamps. It was issued in untagged coils of five hundred and 3,000 stamps. Without regard to the origin of the design, the stamp was issued on May 25, 1991, at Secaucus, New Jersey, and 108,634 first day covers were cancelled.

A new version of the 5-cent Canoe with the vignette printed in red and the service inscription in black was issued on October 22, 1991, again at Secaucus, New Jersey. It was printed by J. W. Fergusson and Sons, Richmond, Virginia, for Stamp Venturers on the Champlain with a plate number at intervals of thirty-three stamps. It was issued only in untagged coils of 10,000 stamps with water-activated, shiny gum and Lo-Gloss Gum. The number of first day covers is unknown.

The stamp was designed by Paul Calle of Stamford, Connecticut. Kenneth Kipperman engraved the vignette, and the letters and numerals were engraved by Gary Slaught. Both engravers worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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5.2-cent Sleigh single

The Postal Service issued the 5.2-cent Sleigh stamp on March 21, 1983, in Memphis, Tennessee. The stamp features the image of an 1890s-era sleigh. Intended to pay the third-class basic presort rate that had gone into effect January 9, it is described as a 'service inscribed' stamp. The words "Auth Nonprofit Org" are included in the design. There was no first day ceremony, but 141,979 first day covers were cancelled. There were 237 million stamps printed.

The stamps were printed on the Cottrell press at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. There were two sleeves per cylinder with the plate number appearing on every twenty-fourth stamp. The stamp was available both in the overall tagged collector's edition and in the untagged, utilitarian precancelled version with two parallel bars. The collector's edition was issued only in coils of five hundred with plate numbers 1, 2, 3, and 5. Plate number 4 is unknown for the collector's edition while plate number singles 3 and 5 are quite scarce.

The untagged, precancelled version appeared in coils of five hundred and 3,000. Plate numbers 1-6 were used for the precancelled stamp. The precancelled version is much more common both as used plate numbers and in mint plate number strips. Plate number strips with gaps between the pre-cancel bars are much scarcer.

Walter Brooks of Norwalk, Connecticut, designed the 5.2-cent Sleigh. Ronald C. Sharpe modeled the stamp, Kenneth Kipperman engraved the vignette, and Dennis Brown engraved the lettering. Sharpe, Kipperman, and Brown were with the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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5.5-cent Star Route Truck single

The 5.5-cent Star Route Truck Transportation coil was issued on Nov 1, 1986, at Fort Worth, Texas, where 136,021 first day covers were cancelled. Star routes came into existence in 1845 when President Tyler signed legislation allowing mail to be transported by the lowest bidder that would provide "celerity, certainty and security." Such contract routes were originally designated by an asterisk, or star, in postal records. Utilitarian trucks were replacing carts, buckboards, and dog sleds by the 1920s.

The 5.5-cent issue was introduced to cover the non-profit bulk rate sorted to the nine digit carrier route. Originally, the design had been scheduled for in June as a 5.7-cent value to meet the proposed rate increase for third-class mail presorted to the carrier route address. It was postponed until mid-September after Congressional action reduced the new rate to five-and-a-half cents. Concern that Congressional funding might die at the end of the government’s fiscal year (September 30) delayed the issue further, until November 1. The stamp continued in use as a false franking when the rate was reduced again on April 3, 1988. Bulk mailers were authorized to continue using the 5.5-cent stamp until October 9, 1988, with the difference to be refunded by the Postal Service.

The 5.5-cent Star Route Truck was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing on the B press with a plate number every fifty-two stamps. The "CAR-RT Sort / Non-profit Org." inscription was printed in black ink from the same plate that printed the maroon vignette. The service-inscribed version is untagged. It was printed by plates 1 and 2 in coils of five hundred and 3,000 stamps. The collectors’ version, without the service inscription, was issued only in coils of five hundred with block tagging.

The stamp was designed by David K. Stone of Port Washington, New York. Joseph Creamer engraved the vignette, and Dennis Brown engraved the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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5.9-cent Bicycle coil single

The 5.9-cent Bicycle Transportation coil illustrates the 'high ordinary', as this remarkable vehicle with a giant front wheel and a tiny back wheel was known. It was already the rage among daredevils in Britain and France by the opening of the Philadelphia's 1876 Centennial Exposition. Retired Col. Albert A. Pope was so taken with the device that he traveled to England to study production methods. Returning to the U.S., he began producing bicycles in Hartford, Connecticut. He introduced the Columbia high-wheeler to American cycle enthusiasts in 1878.

The stamp was issued in Wheeling, West Virginia, on February 17, 1982. There were 814,419 first day covers. The 5.9-cent stamp was service-inscribed, indicating its planned function of paying the basic non-profit presort bulk rate that was introduced on January 10, 1982, and continued until July 27, 1982, which was just five months after the stamp was issued. The stamp was authorized for false franking until July 6, 1983, and then was extended until further notice. It was withdrawn from stocks available for shipping in October 1983 and from philatelic sale at the end of January 1984.

The 5.9-cent Bicycle was printed on the Cottrell press with plate numbers at intervals of twenty-four stamps. A vertical line marking the joint between the plates is found to the right of the plate number. Four plates were used. Plates 1 and 2 were not issued. Plates 3 and 4 were paired for the tagged and service-inscribed collectors’ version that was not overprinted with parallel bars as well as for the untagged variety that was overprinted with two parallel bars. Plates 5 and 6 also were overprinted with parallel bars. The collectors’ version was issued in coils of five hundred stamps, and the overprinted variety was issued in coils of five hundred and 3,000.

The stamp was designed by David K. Stone, Port Washington, New York. Gary M. Chaconas engraved the vignette. Thomas J. Bakos engraved the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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6-cent Tricycle single

The 6-cent Tricycle issue features an image of a three-wheeled vehicle popular during the 1880s. The tricycle was intended for adults wishing to avoid the hazards of the high rider bicycle of the 1870s that appears on the 5.9-cent value of the Transportation Coil Series. The 6-cent Tricycle was issued on May 6, 1985, at Childs, Maryland, without a formal ceremony. There were 151,594 first day covers. All were the block-tagged unprecanceled collectors' version issued in coils of five hundred stamps, all with plate 1.

The stamp was issued to pay the basic third-class bulk per-piece rate that had gone into effect on February 19, 1985. The untagged version was overprinted with the words “Nonprofit Org.” between parallel bars using plates 1 and 2. It was issued in coils of five hundred and 3,000 stamps. When the six-cent non-profit rate ended on December 31, 1985, the precancelled stamp was authorized for false franking until March 1, 1987.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed the stamp on the intaglio B with plate numbers and intervals of fifty-two stamps. It was designed by James Schleyer of Burke, Virginia. The vignette was engraved by Kenneth Kipperman. Thomas J. Bakos engraved the lettering. Both the engravers worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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7.1-cent Tractor single

The 7.1-cent Tractor depicts a John Deere tractor of the 1920s. It was intended to pay the nonprofit five digit presort rate. The stamp was issued on February 6, 1987, during the SARAPEX stamp show in Sarasota, Florida, where 167,555 first day covers were cancelled, including both the untagged service-inscribed and the tagged non-service-inscribed varieties.

The untagged service-inscribed version was printed in two colors on the B press. Both the red vignette and the black service inscriptions were printed at the same time from a single intaglio printing sleeve on their respective press runs. It was issued in coils of five hundred and 3,000. The tagged collectors' version without service inscription was also printed on the B press and issued in coils of five hundred. Plate numbers appear at intervals of fifty-two stamps. All stamps were printed from plate 1.

Two years later, the Zip +4 version was issued on May 26, 1989, at the COMPEX stamp show in Rosemont, Illinois, where 202,804 were cancelled. The stamp was intended to pay the new non-profit rate for mail presorted to nine digits rather than just five. The new stamp was also printed on the B press and issued in coils of five hundred and 3,000, again using plate number 1.

The 7.1-cent Tractor was designed by Ken Dallison of Indian River, Ontario. The vignette was engraved by Gary M. Chaconas, and the lettering was engraved by Robert G. Culin, Sr. Both engravers worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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7.4-cent Baby Buggy single

The 7.4-cent Baby Buggy stamp depicts the wicker baby buggy popular during the 1880s. Issued on April 7, 1984, at the SANDICAL stamp show in San Diego, California, it was intended to pay the third-class carrier-route sort bulk rate initiated on May 22, 1983. When the rate increased to 8.3-cents on February 17, 1985, the 7.4-cent stamp remained available for false franking with an additional payment to the post office.

Unlike the lower values, the 7.4-cent Baby Buggy was printed on the Bureau of Engraving and Printing’s B press. The B press used a single sleeve rather than the paired sleeves of the Cottrell press. There were no gaps between the plates in which ink could accumulate, and therefore there are no vertical lines to the right of the plate number. Plate numbers were separated by fifty-two stamps instead of twenty-four.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed 203.83 million stamps, all from plate 2. The unprecancelled block tagged version intended for collectors was available only in coils of five hundred. The precancelled stamp is not service-inscribed but bears the words “Blk. Rt. CAR-RT SORT” between two parallel lines. Unlike stamps printed on the Cottrell press, there are no precancel gaps. The precancelled, untagged version was available in coils of five hundred and three thousand.

Jim Schleyer of Burke, Virginia, designed the 7.4¢ Baby Buggy, and Frank J. Waslick of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing modeled it. The engravers, both from the Bureau of engraving and Printing, were Kenneth Kipperman for the vignette and Dennis Brown for the lettering.

Thomas Myers

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8.3-cent Ambulance single

The 8.3-cent Ambulance was issued at the NEVPEX-TOPEX stamp show in Reno, Nevada, on June 21, 1985, the same day and place as the 4.9-cent Buckboard. The two are often found together on the 338,765 first day covers that were cancelled on that day.

The stamp illustrates a battlefield ambulance of the Civil War era. The untagged precancelled version is overprinted with the words “Blk. Rt. CAR-RT sort” between two parallel bars. It met the minimum rate per piece for third-class bulk mail sorted to individual carrier route. The rate had gone into effect on February 17, 1985, and lasted until April 3, 1988. The stamp was authorized for false franking until October 9, 1988.

It was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing on the Cottrell press with plate numbers at intervals of twenty-four stamps. A vertical line marking the plate juncture appears to the right of the plate number. Plates 1 and 2 were paired for the unprecancelled version. The same numbers were paired for the precancelled version as well as plate numbers 3 and 4, which also were paired.

When additional stamps were needed in 1986, the Cottrell press was no longer in use, so the reissue was printed on the B press. Though prepared from the same master die as the Cottrell plates, those of the B press are a trifle smaller and there are other small differences. Plate numbers appear at fifty-two-stamp intervals, and there is no vertical line to the right of the plate number. These stamps exist only in the precancelled version with plate number 1. There was no first day cover ceremony, and only a handful of first day covers were prepared when the stamp appeared on August 29, 1986.

The 8.3-cent Ambulance was designed by James Schleyer of Burke, Virginia. The vignette was engraved by Gary M. Chaconas and the lettering by Joseph S. Creamer, both of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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8.5-cent Tow Truck coil single

The 8.5-cent Tow Truck stamp illustrates one of the first commercially produced models sold to private operators during 1920s. Precancelled and unprecancelled stamps were issued on Jan 24, 1987, in Tucson, Arizona. The precancelled version was overprinted in red with the words "Nonprofit Org." It was not tagged. The collectors’ version was block tagged. There were 224,285 first day covers. Some combined the precancelled overprint with the unoverprinted stamp. There were fewer with the overprinted stamp alone.

The stamp was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing on the B press with plate numbers at fifty-two stamp intervals. Only plate number 1 was used for the block tagged version, and plate numbers 1 and 2 were utilized for the untagged, precancelled version. Plate number 2 is somewhat scarcer than plate number 1. The block tagged version was issued in coils of five hundred stamps. The untagged precancelled version was issued in coils of five hundred and 3,000 stamps.

William H. Bond of Arlington, Virginia, designed the stamp. Edward P. Archer engraved the vignette, and Michael J. Ryan engraved the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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9.3-cent Bulk Rate Mail Wagon single

Available for the first time on December 15, 1981, at Shreveport, Louisiana, the 9.3-cent Mail Wagon was the first fractional denomination of the Transportation Coil Series issued. There were 199,645 first day covers cancelled, but there were no first day ceremonies.

The Milk Wagon was intended to pay the third-class, five-digit ZIP code sort bulk mail rate initiated on November 1 and continuing until February 16, 1985. It is a service- inscribed stamp with the words "bulk rate" appearing in the design. Two parallel bars also marked the pre-cancelled stamps.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed 176.79 million Mail Wagon stamps on its Cottrell press. Plate numbers are spaced at twenty-four stamp intervals. The overall tagged collector's version was issued in coils of five hundred using plates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Plates 5 and 6 are much scarcer than the others. The same numbers were issued on the pre-cancelled untagged version as well as plate 8, also quite scarce, but not plate 7.

Jim Schleyer of Burke, Virginia, designed the 9.3-cent Mail Wagon, and Clarence Holbert Bureau of Engraving and Printing modeled the stamp. Gary M. Chaconas engraved the vignette. Gary J. Slaght did the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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10-cent Tractor Trailer photogravure single

This stamp features the image of a Great Depression-era eight-wheel tractor trailer truck. There are two versions of the stamp—engraved and photogravure. The engraved stamp was issued on May 25, 1991, at Secaucus, New Jersey. There were 84,817 first day covers. The photogravure version was issued on May 25, 1994, again at Secaucus, New Jersey. This time there were only 15,431 first day covers.

The 10-cent Tractor Trailer, along with the 5-cent Canoe, reflects the new post office policy of covering all categories of first-class presort and bulk third-class mailings with just two stamps. The 10-cent Tractor Trailer covered all the rates first-class presort and bulk regular third-class mail. It was service-inscribed “Additional Presort Postage Paid” to indicate that it was a false franking and that additional postage had been paid at the post office.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing produced the engraved stamp on the C press with plate numbers at intervals of forty-eight stamps. Only plate 1 was used. It was issued in coils of five hundred and 3,000 stamps. The photogravure stamp was also printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, but this time it was printed on the Andreoti press and issued in rolls of five hundred or 3000 stamps. The plate numbers appeared in the form of two single digits—plate numbers 11 and 22 were issued with plate numbers at intervals of twenty-four stamps.

The stamp was designed by David K. Stone of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and engraved by Gary Chaconas, who did the vignette, and Gary Slaught, who engraved the lettering.

Thomas Myers

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10.9-cent Hansom Cab single

The 10.9-cent Hansom Cab was issued on March 26, 1982, at CHATTAPEX, the Chattanooga (Tennessee) Stamp Club’s 50th anniversary show. The stamp illustrates a Hansom cab, patented by English architect Joseph Hansom in 1834. The Hansom cab now on display in the Smithsonian Institution was manufactured by D.P. Nichols Company of New York, Chicago, and Boston.

Intended to pay the basic third-class presort rate begun five months earlier, on November 1, 1981, the words “bulk rate” are included in the design. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed over ninety-one million stamps on the Cottrell press with plate numbers at intervals of twenty-four stamps. The overall tagged version without precancel bars was issued for collectors in coils of five hundred using only plate numbers 1 and 2. The untagged version with pre-cancel bars for commercial use appeared in coils of five hundred and three thousand. It is found with plate numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. Plate numbers 3 and 4 are much scarcer than plate numbers 1 and 2. Like the other stamps with pre-cancel bars printed on the Cottrell press, there are gaps between the bars at intervals of twelve stamps.

David K. Stone of Port Washington, New York, designed the stamp. Clarence Holbert of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing modeled the stamp, and Edward P. Archer, also of the Bureau, engraved the vignette. Thomas J. Bakos engraved the lettering.

Thomas Myers

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11-cent Railroad Caboose coil single

The 11-cent Caboose stamp pictures the small, narrow-gauge railroad caboose used by a logging company in the Sierra Nevada during the 1890s. It was issued on February 3, 1984, at the Chicago Philatelic Fair in Rosemont, Illinois. There were 172,753 first day covers. The stamp was intended to pay the basic third-class rate that began on May 22, 1983. When the rate was raised to twelve and a half cents on February 17, 1985, the 11-cent Caboose was authorized for false franking with additional postage to be paid at the time of mailing. The stamps were withdrawn from philatelic sale on August 31, 1985.

The Caboose stamp was the first of the Transportation coils to be printed on the Cottrell press. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing printed 439.12 million of the stamps on the B press. Plate numbers were separated by fifty-two stamps rather than twenty-four, as had been the case on the Cottrell press. In spite of the large number of stamps issued, only one sleeve was ever prepared for the initial printing. Only plate 1 was used. The block tagged collector edition was sold only in coils of five hundred. The pre-canceled service version was issued in coils of five hundred and three thousand. There are no precancel gaps.

The 11-cent Caboose was reissued on September 25, 1991, for a variety of false frankings with the difference to be made up at the post office. There was no first day ceremony nor were first day covers prepared for the re-issue. As before, the stamp was printed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, but this time on the C or D press. Plate numbers were at intervals of forty-eight stamps. Only one plate, plate 2, was used. Again there were five hundred or three thousand stamps to the coil. All of the reissued stamps were untagged. There were 164.72 million stamps reprinted, all of them untagged.

Thomas Myers

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11-cent Stutz Bearcat coil single

The 11-cent Stutz Bearcat issue depicts the 1933 model of an American luxury, high-performance sports car made by Stutz Motor Company of Indianapolis. The Bearcat name lasted from 1914 until 1939. In 1927 a Stutz auto set a world record for speed, averaging 68 mph for twenty-four hours. A Stutz finished second at Le Mans in 1928 and set a speed record of 106.53 mph at Daytona. The stamp was issued on June 11, 1985, at the Cars of Yesteryear Museum in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. There were 135,037 first day covers.

The stamp served no postal need but it did function as a change maker in vending machines. It was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing on the Cottrell press with plate 1 paired with plate 2, and plate 3 with plate 4. Only plate numbers 3 and 4 appeared on first day covers. The plate numbers appeared at intervals of twenty-four stamps. A vertical line appears to the right of the plate number.

Ken Dallison, Indian River, Ontario, designed the Stutz Bearcat issue. Thomas Hipschen engraved the vignette, and Robert G. Culin, Sr., engraved the lettering. Both engravers worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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12-cent Stanley Steamer coil single

The 12-cent Stanley Steamer Transportation coil features the steam-powered automobile produced by the Stanley Motor Carriage Company in 1909. The Stanley Rocket set the world land speed record in 1906 at 127.7 mph at the Daytona Beach Road Course. The stamp was issued on April 2, 1985, at Kingfield, Maine, the hometown of the Stanley brothers who produced the automobile. There were 173,998 first day covers.

The stamp was printed in blue ink on the Cottrell press. Plates 1 and 2 alternated every twenty-four stamps. There is a vertical line on the perforations to the right of the coil number. The tagged collectors’ version was issued in rolls of five hundred on the issue date. A few days later, untagged precancels overprinted PRESORTED FIRST-CLASS in black ink between parallel lines were released in coils of five hundred and 3,000. It also was printed on the Cottrell press using alternating plates 1 and 2.

The stamp was issued to pay the presorted first-class mail rate which began on November 1, 1981, and continued until April 2, 1988. The overprinted stamps were permitted for false franking until February 28, 1989.

When additional supplies were needed in 1987, the stamp was reprinted on the B Press. It was issued on September 3, 1987, at Washington, District of Columbia. Plate 1 was spaced at intervals of fifty-two stamps. There is no joint line to the right of the plate number.

Ken Dallison of Indian River, Ontario, designed the 12-cent Stanley Steamer issue. The vignette was engraved by Gary Chaconas, and Gary J. Slaght engraved the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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12.5-cent Pushcart single

The 12.5-cent Pushcart stamp features an image of a simple two-wheeled cart similar to that used by street vendors in the 1880s. It was issued without a ceremony at Oil Center, New Mexico, on April 18, 1985, along with the 10.1-cent Oil Wagon of the Transportation Coil Series. There were 319,953 first day covers that utilized one or both of the stamps.

The 12.5-cent stamp met the per-piece rate for three-digit presort that began on February 17, 1985, and ended on April 3, 1988. After that time, the 12.5-cent Pushcart was used for false franking until October 9, 1988. Plates 1 and 2 were used to print the block tagged collectors’ version and also for the untagged and precancelled with the words "Bulk Rate" between two parallel bars.

The 12.5-cent Pushcart was printed n the B press at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. It was designed by James Schleyer of Burke, Virginia. Gary Chaconas engraved the vignette, and Robert G. Culin, Sr., engraved the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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13-cent Presorted First-Class Patrol Wagon coil single

The 13-cent Patrol Wagon Transportation Coil was issued in Anaheim, California, on October 29, 1988, at the annual convention of the American First Day Cover Society. There were 132,938 covers cancelled on the first day. The stamp illustrates a police patrol wagon that was familiar during the late nineteenth century, a period that saw the professionalization of police forces. Its principal use was to transport police officers to and from their regular beats as well as to public disturbances and other problem areas.

The 13-cent stamp paid the basic presort rate for first-class postcards mailed in quantity. The rate was introduced on April 3, 1988, and lasted until April 2, 1991, when the rate increased to seventeen cents.

The patrol wagon vignette is printed in black, and the service inscription, "Pre-sorted first-class," is printed in red. The stamp was printed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing on the B press with plate numbers at intervals of fifty-two stamps. Only plate number 1 was used. It was issued in untagged coils of five hundred and 3,000.

The stamp was designed by Joe Brockert of the USPS. The vignette was engraved by Edward P. Archer of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and the lettering was done by Dennis Brown, also of the Bureau of Engraving and printing.

Thomas Myers

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14-cent Iceboat single

The 14-cent Iceboat Transportation Coil was released on March 23, 1985, at ROPEX, the annual stamp show in Rochester, New York. There were 324,710 first day covers cancelled. The stamp depicts an 1880s-era iceboat. Iceboats were developed in Scandinavia during the eighteenth century. In 1790 an iceboat sailed on the Hudson River near Poughkeepsie, New York. Several iceboating clubs were formed during the 1870s, but the sport really became popular in the 1930s when the Joy brothers of Milwaukee developed a less expensive front-steering boat with smaller sails.

The stamp was issued to pay the 14-cent postcard rate that began on February 17, 1985, and continued until April 2, 1988. It was initially printed on the Cottrell press at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing with plate numbers at intervals of twenty-four stamps. Plate number 1 was paired with 2 and 3 with 4. There are joint lines on the right of the plate number.

The 14-cent Iceboat was later printed on the B press with plate numbers fifty-two stamp intervals. Only plate number 2 was employed for the B press version. The joint lines to the right of the plate number disappeared on this printing. The design on the B press printing is 1/4mm narrower than the Cottrell version and has block tagging rather than overall tagging.

William H. Bond of Arlington, Virginia, designed the 14-cent iceboat. The vignette was engraved by Gary Chaconas and the lettering by Gary J. Slaght. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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15c Tugboat coil single

The tugboat is crucial to operations in a harbor and along a coast and some riverways. When introduced by the New York Dock Company in 1825, the tugboat’s potential was immediately apparent. Without tugboats, ships were at the mercy of the wind and tide whenever they came into or left port, and delicate mooring maneuvers were performed with chains, ropes, pulleys, and hooks. With tugboats, the processes of entering and departing port were secure.

The 15-cent Tugboat stamp debuted on July 12, 1988, aboard the Queen Mary at Long Beach, California, where it is permanently docked as a hotel and tourist attraction. There were 134,926 covers cancelled on the first day.

The Tugboat stamp was issued to pay the 15-cent postcard rate that began on April 3, 1988, and continued until February 2, 1991. It was printed on the B press in coils of five hundred and 3,000 stamps by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The first stamps printed with plates 1 and 2 were block tagged. The 15-cent Tugboat was reprinted in 1990, again on the B press using plate 2 but this time with overall tagging.

Richard Schlect of Arlington, Virginia, designed the stamp. Gary Chaconas engraved the vignette, Dennis Brown engraved the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printings.

Thomas Myers

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17-cent Electric Auto coil single

Part of the Transportation Coil Series, the design of the 17-cent Electric Auto is based on a 1917 Detroit Electric coupe once driven by Edgar E. Rohrs of Manassas, Virginia. Throughout his life, Rohrs was extremely active in the Antique Auto Club of America, serving as that organization's president between 1963 and 1964. The Detroit Electric coupe depcited on the 17-cent stamp features plush, overstuffed seats and tie-back curtains for privacy. It reached a speed of 25 miles per hour on wooden-spoked wheels and had a range of 80 miles before the battery needed recharging.

The Electric Auto stamp was introduced on June 25, 1981, during a first day ceremony at Greenfield Village, Michigan, where 239,459 first day covers were cancelled. When issued, the stamp was intended to pay the seventeen-cent fee for each additional ounce above the basic first-class letter rate. This additional fee for the second through the twelfth ounces remained in effect until April 3 1988. Stamps issued for this purpose received overall tagging.

The stamp was printed on the Cottrell press in rolls of one hundred, five hundred, and 3,000 stamps. The plate number alternates every twenty-four stamps. Tagged stamps are found with plate numbers 1 through 7. Only plates 1 and 2 were available on first day covers.

The 17-cent Electric Auto found new life when the rate for a presorted first class letter was increased to seventeen cents on November 1, 1981. For this purpose the basic stamp was precancelled with the legend “presorted first class” between two parallel bars. The precancelled stamps were untagged and were available in rolls of five hundred or 3,000 stamps. They are found with plate numbers 1 through 7. Like other stamps printed on the Cottrell press, there are gaps between the precancel bars at intervals of twelve stamps. Specialists distinguish the four different precancel mats used on this issue by their length: Type A = 11.3mm; type B=12.8mm; Type C = 13.4mm; and type D = 14.1mm.

The stamp was designed by Chuck Jaquays of Woodbridge, Virginia, and engraved by Edward P. Archer, vignette, and Thomas J. Bakos, lettering, both from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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18-cent Surrey coil single

The initial issue of the Transportation Coil Series, the 18-cent Surrey was first available on May 18, 1981, at Notch, Missouri. A distinctly American vehicle, the surrey was adapted from the English Whitechapel cart. James B. Brewster and Company of New York modified and produced it in the United States. It usually had two seats and carried four passengers. The most desirable carriages had a canopy or a folding top, sometimes decorated with fringe, to provide some protection from the weather. The musical Oklahoma! featured a tune, familiar to many throughout the world, titled, "Surrey with the Fringe on Top."

When issued, the 18-cent Surrey paid the basic first-class letter rate, which lasted just seven months—from March 22, 1981, to October 30, 1981. There were 473 million stamps issued with overall tagging, and 207,801 covers were cancelled on the day of issue.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing produced the stamp on the Cottrell press using eighteen different plate numbers. The plate numbers alternated every twenty-four stamps. Stamps were issued in coils of one hundred, five hundred, and 3,000 stamps. Plate numbers 15 and 16 are most difficult to find in used condition. In strips of five or seven stamps, as they are most frequently collected, plate numbers 1, 3, and 4 are most difficult. The first ten plate numbers are found on first day covers.

The stamp was designed by David K. Stone of Port Washington, New York, and engraved by Thomas J. Bakos, who did the vignette, and Edward P. Archer, who did the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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20-cent Cable Car coil single

Cable cars transformed city travel in the late nineteenth century. Largely an American institution, they moved quickly at eight to nine miles per hour, much faster than horse-drawn carriages. The first cable car system intended to carry passengers was designed by Andrew Smith Hallidie for Clay Street in San Francisco in 1873. The city of San Francisco soon developed a cable car system, and the California Street Line still operates. Other cities also developed cable car systems.

The 20-cent Cable Car Transportation Coil debuted in San Francisco on October 28, 1988. There were 150,068 first day covers cancelled. It was intended to pay additional ounces of the first-class rate and was issued only in tagged form.

The stamp was initially printed on the C press with block tagging using plate numbers 1 and 2. Later it was reprinted on the D Press with overall tagging. A tagging break occurs every twenty-four stamps at either 12R or 12L position. Stamps from both presses were issued in coils of one hundred, five hundred, 3,000 stamps with a plate number every forty-eight stamps.

Dan Romano of Kentfield CA designed the stamp, which was engraved by Edwin Archer and Michael Ryan, both of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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20-cent Cog Railway coil single

The world’s first cog mountain-climbing railroad opened on July 3, 1869, to carry tourists to the top of Mount Washington, the highest peak in the northeastern United States. It is 6,288 feet high and located in the heart of the White Mountain National Forest in New Hampshire. The Cog Railway stamp depicts the Mount Washington Railway Company's engine no. 5, also known as 'The Cloud'. It was the fourth and last locomotive built by the line's founder. The stamp was issued June 9, 1995. In spite of its association with New Hampshire, the Postal Service chose Dallas, Texas, as the first day city. There were 28,883 first day covers.

The stamp was issued to pay the twenty-cent postcard rate. It was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing by the C press on prephosphored paper. It was issued in coils of one hundred, five hundred, and 3,000 stamps. It was not service-inscribed or precancelled.

The stamp was designed by Robert Brangwynne of Boston, Massachusetts. The vignette was engraved by Gary Charconas of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and the lettering was done by Dixie March, also of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Reference:

Postage Stamp die card, Number 194954-2, Historical Resource Center, Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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24.1-cent Tandem Bicycle coil single

In 1892 a tune by British composer Harry Darce brought down the house at Atlantic Gardens and lit imaginations nationwide—"Daisy, Daisy." Darce's song sets a romantic scene on a "bicycle built for two," and the scene sparked a fad that endured for many decades—riding tandem.

Darce didn't just pull his captivating phrase—"a bicycle built for two"—out of the air. Its roots lie in an episode with the U.S. port authority. Seeing Darce disgruntled when authorities charged him a duty on his bicycle, his friend William Jerome chided, "'It's lucky you didn't bring a bicycle built for two, otherwise you'd have to pay double duty.'" Captivated by its rhythm, Darce worked the phrase into a tune. And the tune soon caused quite a rage in transportation—the bicycle built for two. The bicycle was perfect for a date (even if the young lady’s chaperone had to tag along on a separate bike). Pneumatic tires added comfort and safety.

The 24.1-cent Tandem Bicycle Transportation Coil was introduced on October 26, 1988, in Richmond, Washington, which proclaims itself at the “Bicycle Capital of the Northwest.” There were 138,593 first day covers were cancelled. This rate for unsorted mail with nine-digit zip addresses was introduced on April 3 1988, and continued until February 2, 1991. The stamp was printed in blue on the B press by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing with the Zip + 4 service indicator printed in red. Issued in coils of five hundred and 3,000 stamps, all untagged, there was a plate number every fifty-two stamps. Only plate 1 was issued.

The stamp was designed by Chris Calle of Ridgefield CT. Gary Chaconas engraved the vignette while Michael Ryan did the lettering. Both are from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Reference:

http://chris.kom.com/daisybell.html (Accessed May 8, 2006)

Thomas Myers

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25-cent Bread Wagon single

The single, horse-drawn four-wheeled buggy was the most popular vehicle in America for more than a century. As Americans flocked to the cities, housing space became critical. Markets and deliveries became increasingly important as urban concentration limited the availability of land for household gardens. The picturesque, horse-drawn bread wagon became a familiar sight in neighborhoods as the driver peddled his wares. The wagon was framed with oak and floored with pine or spruce. Colorful advertisements adorned its sides.

The 25-cent Bread Wagon Transportation Coil was issued on November 22, 1986, at the VAPEX stamp show in Virginia Beach, Virginia. There were 151,950 first day covers, all with plate number 1 on coils of 3,000 stamps from the B press. The stamp was intended for use in post office vending machines for mailing parcels and overweight letters. The only use for a solo 25-cent stamp was on foreign postcards to destinations other than Canada and Mexico.

The demand for the 25-cent Bread Wagon exploded when the letter rate increased to twenty five cents on April 3, 1988. Plate numbers 2, 3, and 4 were printed on the C and D presses with a plate number every forty-eight stamps. Plate 5 was prepared for the B press in coils of five hundred and 3,000 stamps with plate numbers at intervals of 52 stamps. Coils of one hundred, five hundred, and 3,000 came from the C and D presses. All stamps were block tagged.

The stamp was designed by William Bond. The vignette was engraved by Edward P. Archer, and Michael J. Ryan engraved the lettering. Both worked for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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$1 Seaplane coil single

The 1-dollar seaplane is the highest value in the Transportation Coil Series. It features a Benoist Type XIV airboat, which had been designed and built by Thomas Benoist in St. Louis, Missouri. The airboat initiated the world's first regularly scheduled airline service on January 1, 1914, with its flight between Tampa and St. Petersburg, Florida. It carried a pilot, one passenger, and a load of express cargo on the eighteen-mile flight, which took about twenty-three minutes. The stamp was issued on April 20, 1990, at the ARIPEX stamp show in Phoenix, Arizona. There were 244,775 first day covers.

The stamp was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing first on the B press using plate 1 with dull gum and all over tagging and had a plate number every fifty-two stamps. In 1993 plate 3 was printed on shiny gum paper with mottled tagging using the C/D press with a plate number every forty-eight stamps. It was reprinted in 1998 on low gloss paper with solid tagging.

The 1-dollar seaplane was designed by Chuck Hodgson of Newhall, California. Gary M. Chaconas of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved the vignette, and the lettering was engraved by John Masure, also of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

Thomas Myers

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