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Hoyer & Ludwig

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10-cent Thomas Jefferson single

Hoyer & Ludwig, the Richmond lithographers, were the first to receive a contract from the Confederate States Post Office Department. They were neither experienced in stamp printing nor equipped for the job. The scarcity of printing stones forced the firm to recycle each stone after completion of an order, resulting in a new transfer whenever an order for stamps was received from the Confederate Post Office. In addition, inks were mixed in small quantities, causing a wide inconsistency of shades. As a result, the lithographed stamps of the Confederacy present an intriguing challenge to philatelists.

The first Confederate issue, a 5-cent green imperforate bearing the portrait of President Jefferson Davis, appeared on October 16, 1861. Davis was the first living president to appear on a postage stamp. In the absence of radio, television, and lavishly illustrated publications, the postage stamp was looked upon as the best means for introducing the leader of the newly-formed Confederacy to his constituency.

Patricia Kaufmann

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5-cent Jefferson Davis single

The stamp's central motif is a portrait of Confederate President Jefferson Davis, designed and engraved by Charles Ludwig of Hoyer & Ludwig. There is a wide range of shades of green among the issued stamps, which help distinguish the various printings of this first issue. There were 9,250,000 stamps printed from three different lithographic stones. They were printed on soft, porous, wove paper, and were imperforate. The most typical use is for the 5-cent rate (under 500 miles), although pairs are known used for the 10-cent rate (over 500 miles), and occasionally used for higher rates, which are very scarce.

Stone A or B: The earliest recorded date of use is October 16, 1861. Plate not completed, therefore size of the plate is unknown. These stones had imprints. Printings from this stone are characterized by their uniform olive green color and the best quality of the three stones with sharp clear impressions. There are no minor colors. Distinctive marks are few and minute.

Stone 1: The earliest recorded date of use is October 18, 1861. Plating completed. The stamps were printed in sheets of two hundred, panes of one hundred, and a transfer stone of fifty without imprint. A number of constant, recurring varieties occur on the fifty-subject transfer stones. The first small printing was in olive green, with other shades of bright green, dark green, light green, and dull green. The typical shade is an intermediate shade of bright green. Impressions are clear, although not a clear as on Stones A or B.

Stone 2: The earliest recorded date of use is December 2, 1861. The stamps were printed in sheets of two hundred, panes of one hundred, and a transfer stone of fifty without imprint. All shades other than olive green are known from this stone, with the most common being a dull green. It is characterized by poor impressions and many noticeable distinctive marks. This stone was also used to print the 5-cent blue Jefferson Davis (CSA Scott 4) of the same design but different color.

Patricia Kaufmann

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2-cent Jackson single

The central motif is a portrait of Andrew Jackson, designed and engraved by Charles Ludwig of Hoyer & Ludwig. There is a wide range of green shades among the issued stamps, which helps distinguish the various printings of this first issue. There were 750, 000 stamps printed from one lithographic stone. A full printed sheet consisted of two panes of one hundred stamps, each arranged in two blocks of fifty (10X5) taken from the fifty-subject transfer stone with a wide vertical gutter between panes. Plating completed. They were printed on thick, porous, wove paper, and were imperforate. The most typical use is for the two-cent drop letter and circular rates, as well as the occasional strip of five stamps to pay the ten-cent letter rate after July 1, 1862. The earliest recorded date of use is March 21, 1862. Color shades are green, bright yellow green, dark green, and the scarce bright emerald green. Major print varieties are known.

Patricia Kaufmann

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5-cent Jefferson Davis Stone 2 single

Charles Ludwig's engraving of Jefferson Davis, which forms the stamp's central design, is the same as for the 5-cent green printing (CSA Scott 1). The range of shades of blue among the issued stamps is wide. There were 6,700,000 stamps printed from two different lithographic stones. They were printed on soft, porous, wove paper, and they were imperforate. The most typical use was for the 5-cent rate (under 500 miles), although pairs are known that were used for the 10-cent rate (over 500 miles).

Stone 2: The earliest recorded date of use is February 26, 1862. Plating completed and is identical to the 5-cent green design (CSA Scott 1). The stamps were printed in sheets of two hundred, panes of one hundred, and a transfer stone of fifty without imprint. The impressions are generally rough and coarse, and the colors range from light to dark blue, as well as the scarce indigo shade. Same consistent printing varieties as for the 5-cent green.

Stone 3: The earliest recorded date of use is April 10, 1862. Plating completed. The stamps were printed in sheets of two hundred, panes of one hundred, and a transfer stone of fifty without imprint. Impressions are generally clear and sharp. The two most common shades are a clear deep blue and a light milky blue. This stone was never used to print the 5-cent green. Major print varieties are known, although not as pronounced as on Stone 2.

Patricia Kaufmann

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10-cent Thomas Jefferson single

The stamp's central motif is a portrait of Thomas Jefferson, designed by Charles Ludwig of Hoyer & Ludwig, Richmond, Virginia. Both Hoyer & Ludwig and J. T. Paterson & Co. of Augusta, Georgia, printed this design. The portrait of Thomas Jefferson used on both the Hoyer & Ludwig print and the Paterson print was the same portrait used on the U.S. 5-cent issue of 1851. Marks added by Paterson to the transfer stones distinguish it from the Hoyer & Ludwig prints of the same design. The most typical use was for the ten-cent rate after July 1, 1862.

Hoyer & Ludwig (CSA Scott 2b): The earliest recorded date of use is November 8, 1861. This was the first stone used for this issue. There were 1,400,000 printings from one stone with the imprint “Lith of Hoyer & Ludwig, Richmond, Va.”. Plating completed. Sheets of two hundred, panes of one hundred, and transfer stone of fifty. The color is a uniform dark blue with clear and distinct impressions. Plating marks are also distinct and repeated.

Also see J.T. Paterson & Co. for their printings of the same design.

Patricia Kaufmann

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10-cent Thomas Jefferson single

Charles Ludwig of Hoyer & Ludwig designed the stamp's central motif, a portrait of Thomas Jefferson. The same transfer stone was used to print the 10-cent rose (CSA Scott 5) and the Hoyer & Ludwig printing of the 10-cent blue (CSA Scott 2b), thus the same plating varieties exist. The color change from blue to rose is thought to have occurred in March 1862. The earliest recorded date of use is March 10, 1862 (May 27, 1862, for the carmine shade). There were 1,150,000 printings from one stone with the imprint “Lith of Hoyer & Ludwig, Richmond, Va.” Plating completed. Sheets of two hundred, panes of one hundred, and transfer stone of fifty. The color varieties include pink, rose, dull rose, and deep rose, as well as the rare carmine and brown-rose shades. Plating marks are distinct and repeated. The most typical use is for the ten-cent rate after July 1, 1862, and ten-cent letter rate over five hundred miles prior to July 1, 1862.

Patricia Kaufmann