A republic on the southeast coast of Africa. Portuguese settlements began in the 16th century, and the colony remained a Portuguese possession until June 25, 1975, when it became independent as the People's Republic of Mozambique. The pro-communist Frelimo Party, which controlled Mozambique after independence, was handicapped by the flight of white Mozambicans, a South-African supported guerrilla war and, in the 1980s, a drought that, with the civil war, brought heavy loss of life. In 1989, Frelimo renounced communism and accepted a multiparty, free-market system. In 1992, the civil war was ended, and in 1995, nearly two million refugees were repatriated.