A republic in west Africa, on the Gulf of Guinea. Formed from the former British colony of the Gold Coast and the mandated territory of British Togoland in 1957, Ghana became fully independent in 1960. During 1957-66, Ghana was ruled by Kwame Nkrumah, one of the leaders of its independence movement. Nkrumah launched major economic projects but, in the process, built up a huge foreign debt. His economic mismanagement and repression of political opposition created popular dissatisfaction, and in 1966, he was overthrown in a military coup. The new regime expelled Chinese and East German advisers, and in 1969 civilian government was restored. During 1972-81, there were a number of military coups, and from 1981 to 1992 the military ruled the country, suspending the constitution and outlawing political parties. A new constitution providing for a democratic multiparty system was adopted in 1992.