A republic in central Asia, located between China and Siberia. The homeland of the Mongol Empire that in the 13th-14th centuries stretched from Poland to Korea. By 1689, Mongol power had declined to the point where the region came under Chinese control. In 1911, Mongolia declared its independence but, in 1921, was occupied by Soviet troops. In 1924, a pro-Soviet republic was established, and in 1945, after China renounced all claims in the country, the Mongolian People's Republic was established. From the 1970s, the Mongolian government carried out an active program to transform the country's economy from nomadic to a more modern, settled form. In 1990, the communist government gave up its monopoly on power, and the country has moved quickly to democratize and to liberalize its economy.