For period 2003-2006 see Serbia
A former kingdom in the Balkans, situated north of Albania. Montenegro became independent in 1452 and for centuries successfully resisted the Turks, who held the rest of southeastern Europe. In January 1916, the Austrians occupied Montenegro, and the government fled to Bordeaux, France, where overprinted French stamps were used for a time. In November 1918, King Nicholas was deposed in a pro-Serbian coup, and Montenegro was united with Serbia. During World War II, Montenegro was re-established as an Italian protectorate. In 1943-44, it was occupied by Germany, which overprinted Yugoslavian stamps and issues of the Italian administration. After the German defeat, Montenegro was again occupied by Yugoslavia, which initially overprinted issues of the Italian Montenegrin regime. Since 1945, regular Yugoslavian stamps have been used. With the breakup of the Yugoslav state in the 1990s, Montenegro has remained in partnership with Serbia as part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared in 1992.