Wilma Rudolph
Wilma Rudolph
Wilma Rudolph {1940-1994} had been a sickly child, but at the 1960 Olympics in Rome, she became the first American woman to win three gold medals in track-and-field during a single Olympic Games, despite running on a sprained ankle. She attended Tennessee A & I State University on a scholarship and graduated in 1963. Although she retired from running track in 1962, she worked with young people as a teacher and a coach. She was inducted into the U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame in 1983 and honored with the National Sports Award in 1993.

Close Up: The technique Mark Summers used to create this portrait is called scratchboard. An actual board is covered with a smooth, white waxy substance that is coated with black ink. The artist "scratches" into the coating with a blade, to reveal white lines under the black surface. The artist suggests features – such as Wilma Rudolph's vibrant smile – by highlighting rather than outlining. (See two more scratchboard portraits in History & Exploration: Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin.)
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Mark Summers
Richard Sheaff
Scratchboard
2004
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