Pony Express Keeps Delivering

April 14, 2010 - The Pony Express may be 150 years old, but the celebration continues! Speakers from the National Pony Express Association, Inc. discuss how they honor the Pony Express today. Find out about the 1983 Slide Ride when members of the organization saddled up to ride the mail between two California towns made inaccessible by an avalanche, the 1996 Olympic Torch Relay Ride, and other stories from the trail.

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00:06

good afternoon everyone my name is Kaia

00:10

and I'm an educator here at the National

00:12

Postal Museum and we are so excited to

00:15

have everyone here we want to say

00:17

welcome to everyone who has come in for

00:19

our lecture today at the Museum we are

00:22

celebrating the hundred and fiftieth

00:24

anniversary of the Pony Express this

00:26

year we've got a new exhibit we've got

00:29

some changes to our website and lots of

00:31

different programs and events that are

00:33

going on throughout the year to honor

00:35

this anniversary so we're really excited

00:38

to have all of these speakers here today

00:40

who are going to tell us a little bit

00:42

more about the Pony Express and a quick

00:44

reminder to everyone here this is being

00:47

streamed live online and so the

00:49

microphones you probably can't hear

00:51

anything coming out of it and the reason

00:53

for that is that it's for the benefit of

00:54

the folks watching it at home and across

00:56

the across the world basically so

01:00

without further ado we will introduce

01:02

our first speaker this is less

01:04

bennington who is the president of the

01:06

National Pony Express Association thanks

01:15

yeah we certainly want to express our

01:17

gratitude for everybody that's taking

01:19

the time to be here today and watch this

01:21

online this has been in the works for us

01:24

for several years and we hope you enjoy

01:28

it and glean some information about the

01:31

original Pony Express and also about the

01:33

National Pony Express Association and we

01:36

do a rewrite each year this will be our

01:38

31st year of doing the rear ID into or

01:41

across the eight states that make up the

01:43

National Pony Express historic trail and

01:45

without further ado I'll introduce Jim

01:48

Swaggart he's from California and he

01:52

will give you some information Jim

01:59

well good afternoon and it's a pleasure

02:02

to be here today I have been given the

02:04

opportunity to tell you about a

02:06

short-lived but at a very exciting event

02:08

in our history the Pony Express the this

02:11

year our country is celebrating 150

02:14

a--the anniversary of the Pony Express

02:15

the Pony Express service service started

02:18

in april of eighteen sixty and it ended

02:20

in november of 1861 the it was triggered

02:24

really in the 18-49 with the discovery

02:27

of gold in California it created a mass

02:30

movement of people from the east to the

02:32

west to develop that into the country at

02:35

that time through the 1850s

02:38

communication was possible from the from

02:40

the west to the east and back but it was

02:42

slow there were a couple choices one was

02:45

they had ocean steamers and sailing

02:47

ships coming out of New York all the way

02:50

around the horn through the Isthmus of

02:52

Panama but they were taking four to six

02:54

weeks so communication was getting in

02:56

there for six weeks the other choice was

02:59

by 1858 the Butterfield stage line had

03:02

been established and that was the

03:04

southern route going down through what's

03:06

now Texas down through Arizona Southern

03:09

California then up through the interior

03:11

of California and getting to San

03:13

Francisco a little better but it was

03:15

still about 20 21 days of to get any

03:18

kind of mail or information through at

03:20

this time there were three men that were

03:24

the founding fathers of our Pony Express

03:26

system they were all very prominent and

03:29

very successful men around the 1854

03:32

period the first man it was involved was

03:34

William Russell Russell was an

03:36

entrepreneur a speculator he was

03:39

involved in a number of investments

03:40

banking railroading and frating in 1854

03:45

Russell held a government contract

03:47

supplying goods to Western forts he had

03:50

approximately about 1,700 men under his

03:52

employment at that time the second guy

03:55

was Alexander majors sort of an exact

03:58

opposite of Russell he was a farmer a

04:01

hard worker a very religious man he was

04:04

also very smart and an opportunist also

04:07

he saw that in 1848 a chance to all

04:11

we'll make some money hauling Freight so

04:14

in 1848 he obtained five wagons started

04:17

hauling Freight on the southern route

04:18

and just in a period of from 1848 to

04:21

about 1854 he'd expanded his business

04:23

about a hundred wagons and he was a

04:26

direct competitor to Russell the third

04:29

gentleman involved in this project was

04:31

William wadell what L was a smart man a

04:35

businessman I had read somewhere where

04:36

he married into some money my dad always

04:39

said that wasn't a bad idea but it I

04:42

know that gave him a little bit of a

04:44

foothold so he got into business and he

04:46

was a very successful merchant and he

04:49

was also involved in banking and

04:50

insurance enterprises all three of these

04:54

men resided in Missouri at this time it

04:56

is this frame Waddell lived across the

04:59

street from Russell and by the 1850s the

05:02

two men were both involved in not only

05:04

neighbors and businessman but they had

05:06

gotten involved in some business

05:07

ventures together then by 18 55 we've

05:11

got Russell approaching majors and he's

05:14

his competition now and so he approaches

05:16

majors with Waddell as a partner and I

05:20

wanted to see if they could partner up

05:22

and incorporate and sort of get it get a

05:26

conglomerate of on the frating business

05:28

and that's exactly what they ended up

05:29

doing they created a central Overland in

05:32

California Pikes Peak expressed company

05:34

they basically monopolized the frating

05:37

industry and they were making lots of

05:39

money now we go to about January of

05:42

eighteen sixty Russell is in Washington

05:45

DC he meets up with Senator Gwynn of

05:48

California proposing to Gwen a idea of a

05:53

pony express mail service across the

05:55

United States through the central route

05:57

and he would be leaving they would leave

05:59

st. Joseph Missouri and they would go to

06:01

San Francisco California they would be

06:04

covering 1966 miles and he proposed to

06:07

do it in ten days the general feeling

06:10

was that it did they didn't quite think

06:12

it was going to work the government

06:14

wasn't interested in giving out any kind

06:15

of a mail contract or anything for a

06:18

speculative idea there whether it worked

06:20

or not Russell's partners weren't real

06:23

thrilled about getting him to fall

06:24

this either it looked like a business

06:27

that was going to draw a lot of money

06:28

and there again no guarantee it was

06:30

going to be a profitable one Russell

06:32

convinced the partners that it would be

06:33

a good idea he was convinced that if we

06:35

could prove that it could be done in 10

06:37

days they would certainly get a male

06:39

contract and we'd have some money now

06:43

this is this is January 1860 so Russell

06:47

proposes that he'll have his service his

06:49

mail service established up and running

06:52

in about three months so he's going to

06:54

have it up and running by by April this

06:57

is where it starts to get a little

06:58

impressive because now you've got a

07:01

business that's going from an idea to

07:04

functional in less than three months

07:06

time he's got to establish remount

07:09

stations every 12 to 15 miles providing

07:12

fresh horses he's got a purchase

07:15

approximately 500 horses to accomplish

07:18

this they were paying about a hundred

07:20

and seventy five dollars a horse at that

07:22

time and that figures out to about

07:24

eighty seven thousand dollars outlay of

07:26

cash at that time for horses they needed

07:30

riders of course as you've all heard

07:33

young wiry skinny orphans preferred and

07:36

so they were they were out looking for

07:38

riders they were going to each rider was

07:40

going to have to be responsible for

07:42

minimum 65 to 75 miles of distance and

07:45

so they're going to need at least 40

07:47

riders or possibly more as they needed

07:50

to replace them they were going to have

07:52

to hire station keepers where the horses

07:54

were stationed there were gonna have to

07:55

be somebody there to maintain the horses

07:57

so the writers could come in and then be

07:59

transferred over they needed equipment

08:01

they had to acquire saddles McClellan's

08:04

was with the saddle of preference it was

08:06

an old US Cavalry saddle lightweight

08:09

wood should work out pretty good the

08:12

Moche which you've all have had a chance

08:13

to maybe see they needed something as a

08:15

mail pouch to carry or transfer the

08:18

letters through their goal was a fresh

08:22

horse would travel about 8 to 11 miles

08:25

an hour they would travel day and night

08:27

they would cover 250 miles a day and

08:30

they would be able to go from one

08:32

location st. Joseph to San Francisco

08:34

accomplishing that in 10 days we

08:37

to jump ahead our organization does the

08:40

rear I'd we have the same goal in mind

08:42

we still try to do it in 10 days we

08:44

still try to go day and night just as

08:46

they do there's a lot of guys in here

08:48

that have traveled that much chea the

08:50

whole distance and they can tell you it

08:52

just doesn't quite work that way mother

08:54

nature can always change things but

08:57

there were route supervisors there was a

09:00

whole structure of employees needed to

09:02

set this up and get this thing

09:04

established the initially the writers

09:08

were loaded down with a rifle a knife a

09:11

pistol a bugle and a Bible if anyone's

09:15

done any try speed on a horse wait is

09:17

the issue they were just they had way

09:19

too much stuff so most of the riders

09:21

discarded everything but their 36

09:23

caliber is in 1851 navy Colt and

09:26

everybody would like to think they kept

09:28

their Bibles so but I'd like to talk

09:31

about some writers you've had a chance

09:34

to walk around the museum and see some

09:36

of the different things there were some

09:38

names that I'll mention that are

09:40

familiar to you Johnny fry William Cody

09:43

Buffalo Bill he was a writer at about 16

09:46

and rode for the Pony Express William

09:49

Hamilton another writer Robert Haslam

09:52

which was later known as Pony Bob now

09:54

little story got to tell you about Pony

09:56

Bob May of eighteen sixty he's stationed

10:00

at Friday station a Friday station for

10:03

you that don't know is late Lake Tahoe

10:05

right at the state line between

10:07

California Nevada is Lake Tahoe and

10:09

that's right past on the other side of

10:11

state line is righty station he rode he

10:14

took the ride at Friday's station took

10:17

it for his 75 mile ride when he went

10:21

eastbound on his 75 mile ride the rider

10:23

that was to take it over from there

10:26

refuse to go there was Indian problems

10:28

Indian attacks he said I ain't going so

10:30

they asked Bonnie mom we said would you

10:33

would you carry on I'll do it so he

10:35

takes on and does the next leg also at

10:38

the end of that ride he had done 190

10:41

miles non-stop he then ends up getting

10:44

about a nine-hour rest before the Moche

10:47

ax has come from the westbound direction

10:49

he's got to turn around and go

10:50

back he turns back around heads back and

10:53

does the exact same route he had already

10:54

accomplished and so he logged in 380

10:57

miles when the longest rives another

11:01

writer I wanted to mention was William

11:02

warrant upson if you're done in the

11:05

museum you saw Warren talking about his

11:07

ride in the museum here Warren was out

11:10

of sportsman's Hall now sportsman's Hall

11:12

is located in Pollock Pines California

11:15

so he's on the west side of the Sierra

11:17

Nevadas was riding through the Sierra

11:19

Nevadas and he was writing to Friday

11:21

station now I live in Pollock Pines in

11:25

California I ride the Sierra Nevadas and

11:28

have been doing it for 20 years it's a

11:30

great place to ride I I pick a nice

11:33

sunny day no snow and it's a beautiful

11:36

ride I can tell you if if there's a

11:39

storm going on we don't even try to get

11:41

to Lake Tahoe and four-wheel drive on

11:43

the highway you know it just it just

11:44

doesn't happen these guys and it was

11:46

reported that when he left in April and

11:48

I was confirmed when I walked through

11:50

the museum thing when he left when

11:52

Warren left in April he was riding into

11:54

a snowstorm it was I read it was a

11:56

blizzard and he was writing into a

11:58

blizzard and he crossed those Sierra

12:00

Nevada mountains to Friday station in a

12:03

snowstorm for me that's just phenomenal

12:05

and also unbelievable so anyway the Pony

12:10

Express had a short life of 18 months by

12:13

October of 1861 the transcontinental

12:16

telegraph was coming through shortly

12:18

after that the railroad had come through

12:20

and the life of the Pony Express came to

12:23

a halt to kind of summarize this for you

12:26

the Pony Express was a financial

12:28

disaster they the investors the founding

12:32

fathers never receive a government mail

12:34

contract the three founding fathers as a

12:37

result of the outlay of cash ended up in

12:41

bankruptcy so from that standpoint it

12:43

was a failure but the flip side of it

12:46

was the pony rider proved they proved

12:50

that in 10 days a mail service could be

12:52

done they accomplished the

12:55

accomplishments the feats of the Pony

12:56

Express rider the the pony rider himself

12:59

have become legendary

13:01

the short-lived but but but a very

13:04

colorful part of our history was the

13:06

Pony Express brave young riders and fast

13:10

horses enduring heat rain snow storms

13:13

and Indian tax the pony riders were the

13:16

true heroes of the Old West thank you

13:22

thank Jim our next speaker Pat Hardy

13:26

pets one of the past national presence

13:29

and it lives south jordan utah bat

13:37

thanks les I've been asked to talk a

13:40

little bit about our association today

13:42

National Pony Express association was

13:45

incorporated in the state of California

13:47

in 1978 for the purposes of establishing

13:50

marking and rewriting the Pony Express

13:52

trail and keeping that spirit alive

13:55

since that time the Association has

13:58

gained an international reputation as a

14:00

principal resource for all things

14:02

concerning the Pony Express I'd like to

14:05

briefly speak about some of the

14:06

significant events and accomplishments

14:08

in the history of our organization first

14:11

big opportunity for npe a came in april

14:13

of nineteen eighty-three when a

14:15

thousand-foot a thousand foot long

14:17

mudslide closed highway 50 in the sierra

14:21

nevada mountains just near jim's country

14:24

they're just east of pollock pines

14:26

california where mail delivery to the

14:29

small towns such as kyburz and little

14:31

norway was interrupted i was cut off

14:34

MPAA's founding president Malcolm

14:36

McFarland was half joking with Patricia

14:39

Peterson the postmistress of in Pollock

14:41

Pines he suggested that the ponies could

14:43

go male could be carried over those

14:45

mountain trails by Pony Express and it

14:48

turned out not to be a joke by April

14:51

fifteenth an agreement with the post

14:53

office had been signed and Pony Express

14:55

riders began carrying the US mail on

14:57

horseback over 40 miles of trails and

15:00

back roads to provide delivery to those

15:03

isolated communities the letters were

15:05

relayed by nine riders each day each

15:07

writing about five miles segments the

15:11

response was immediate and overwhelming

15:13

new

15:14

paper articles quickly appeared in The

15:16

New York Times Los Angeles Times papers

15:19

in Chicago st. Louis Salt Lake City and

15:22

as far away as Tokyo TV coverage was

15:26

similarly widespread McFarland appeared

15:29

live with Diane Sawyer on CBS Morning

15:31

News he did live radio interviews with

15:34

syd stations in Sydney Australia and the

15:36

US military in Guam letters poured in

15:40

from all over the world to be carried by

15:42

the 20th century Pony Express riders

15:44

postmistress peterson estimated that

15:47

Pollock Pines post office had processed

15:49

over 20,000 letters with the special

15:51

hand cancellation produced for that

15:53

event by Max own account this is from

15:57

the newspaper am I excited when I went

15:59

to shave this morning I put on my

16:01

aftershave lotion first yes you could

16:03

say I'm excited all right after a few

16:08

days the first few days the post office

16:10

officials realized that a jeep could go

16:13

where the horses were going but the

16:15

excitement was running so high that bulk

16:17

and third-class mail were carried by

16:19

Jeep and first-class letters continued

16:22

to be transmitted by Pony Express they

16:25

continued this historic endeavor for

16:26

about six weeks until the blockage of

16:29

highway 50 was cleared and normal postal

16:31

service was restored but during those

16:34

six historic weeks the name of the Pony

16:37

Express was on more times than at any

16:39

time in previous hundred and twenty

16:41

years in 1985 in the country of

16:44

Czechoslovakia a group of horsemen

16:47

decided to act upon their enthusiasm for

16:49

the history of the American West by

16:51

conducting a Pony Express rite of their

16:53

own they marked off a trail beginning in

16:56

Prague and ending in the province of

16:58

morovia about 250 miles to the east and

17:01

they started relaying a sack of a sack

17:04

of mail Pony Express try and style

17:06

across the country in 1989 they

17:10

contacted our national president ken

17:12

martin with the proposition for an

17:14

international exchange the idea caught

17:17

the imagination of the American Pony

17:19

Express riders although communication

17:22

was extremely difficult the plans were

17:24

laid and the fall of the communist

17:26

government during that winter

17:27

travel arrangements considerably easier

17:29

in June of 1990 supported by Westerners

17:33

International and hosted by members of

17:35

npe a6 check writers arrived in

17:38

California to take part in our 1990 Pony

17:41

Express rewrite we hope that we provided

17:44

them the experience of a lifetime as

17:46

they traveled almost the entire length

17:49

of the trail sharing our homes writing

17:52

our horses they went back to their

17:54

country with stories of feeling awed by

17:56

the empty expanses of the Great Basin in

17:58

Nevada of being nervous in Kansas where

18:01

they were expecting to be daily swept

18:03

away by tornadoes they were not great

18:07

followers of the injunction against

18:09

drinking intoxicated liquor which is

18:10

founded our Pony Express oh but after

18:13

the experiences after the experiences on

18:16

the Pony Express trail various groups of

18:18

Westerners offered them the opportunity

18:20

to take part in a cattle drive in the

18:22

Midwest and to visit some of the Western

18:24

history oriented museums and sites they

18:28

made many lifelong friends and spread

18:30

goodwill wherever they went after the

18:33

conclusion of the rewrite in America six

18:36

American writers and a couple of family

18:38

members traveled to the Czech Republic

18:40

to take part in the European Pony

18:42

Express ride the love and courtesy and

18:45

hospitality shown to the American npe a

18:48

members cannot be overstated they were

18:51

celebrities there for a few days

18:53

shopping and sightseeing in Prague

18:55

before the tourists found it being

18:58

honored and toasted by local government

19:00

officials and receiving all manner of

19:02

small gifts the Americans were sworn in

19:05

as check writers in a solemn ceremony at

19:07

a thousand year old castle in Bohemia

19:10

the European Pony Express started off

19:13

with a horse show and festival in a town

19:15

called knee shack near Prague then for

19:18

three days the mail pouch was passed in

19:20

relays over the Czech Pony Express trail

19:23

with the American writers taken their

19:25

terms you cannot describe the feeling of

19:28

writing those spirited check horses

19:30

through the verdant countryside through

19:32

the lanes and the cobblestone streets

19:35

their little rural villages that were

19:37

old when our Constitution was signed and

19:40

the wheat fields and through the potato

19:42

fields and through the strawberry

19:43

patches are check the check guide was an

19:46

interpreter was asked if the farmers

19:48

didn't get angry about the horses

19:50

tearing up their crops the reply which

19:53

was still a with very much with the

19:56

communist attitude at that time the

19:58

reply was by the time they find out were

20:01

gone the European trail branched into

20:05

three with one branch going to the

20:07

Austrian border to the south and another

20:09

going north into what was then East

20:11

Germany the Americans followed the

20:14

original branch to wear the right ended

20:15

in the Moravian town of Sioux kadhal

20:17

with another horse show and a Western

20:20

Festival more than a few tears were shed

20:22

when the American riders left for home

20:24

in 1992 our national our first national

20:29

president Mack McFarland saw one of his

20:31

goals achieved when on august 3rd 1992

20:35

President George Herbert Walker Bush

20:37

signed legislation officially

20:40

authorizing the Pony Express National

20:42

Historic Trail years of hard work and

20:45

perseverance by a dedicated team

20:47

including Kenan arleta Martin were

20:49

rewarded when the trail was finally

20:51

designated part of the national trail

20:53

system next at the city as the city of

20:57

Atlanta Georgia planned for the 1996

20:59

summer olympics they decided to carry

21:02

the olympic flame on a circuitous route

21:04

of 15,000 miles through 42 states with

21:08

the torch being carried by a number of

21:09

modes of travel they chose to include

21:12

travel by Pony Express and they chose

21:14

the National Pony Express Association to

21:17

do the job after careful study of our

21:20

capabilities and procedures the torch

21:22

relay committee marked off a 538 mile

21:24

stretch of the Pony Express national

21:26

historic trail between julesburg

21:28

Colorado and st. Joseph Missouri Pony

21:32

Express riders took custody of the torch

21:34

on May thirteenth 1996 in Julesburg the

21:38

winds were so strong that the flame had

21:40

to be carried in an enclosed Lantern at

21:42

times at other times the Midwest Summer

21:45

Sun and humidity made the going heavy

21:47

for both riders and mounts but our

21:50

writers were proud to take part under

21:51

any conditions

21:52

they rode day and night in true Pony

21:54

Express fashion and they were met with a

21:57

hero's welcome at every nearly at every

21:59

town in nearly every crossroads along

22:01

the way through Nebraska and Kansas they

22:04

delivered their precious cargo in st.

22:06

Joseph Missouri on May sixteenth over

22:10

300 writers representing all Pony

22:12

Express trail states took part writing

22:15

one and two miles each none will ever

22:17

forget the thrill of that opportunity

22:20

two of my sons participated and the

22:23

drive back of 2,000 rounds trip drive of

22:26

2,000 miles was a small price to pay to

22:28

see the look of pride on their faces as

22:30

they rode with the torch in their hand

22:32

was a privilege that few have had in

22:35

2002 the Olympics again let the light

22:38

shine on the National Pony Express

22:40

Association this time it was the winter

22:43

olympic games in Salt Lake City the

22:45

torch relay which again covered

22:47

thousands of miles by several modes of

22:49

travel was pretty closed this time but

22:51

they did allow the flame to travel about

22:53

five miles along the trail between eagle

22:55

mountain and fairfield utah by pony and

22:57

writer at Camp Camp Floyd state park in

23:02

Fairfield the site of an original Pony

23:04

Express station an estimated one to two

23:07

thousand people came in sub-freezing

23:09

temperatures to see the torchbearer

23:11

right in with a Fife and drum corps

23:13

playing martial music the torch relay

23:16

really had a life of its own at soldier

23:19

hollow side of the cross-country skiing

23:21

and biathlon events local promoters put

23:24

up a Western experience village for the

23:27

entertainment of visitors to that venue

23:29

they had a cowboy camp Indian teepees

23:32

mountain men Mustangs Buffalo etc a

23:37

couple of our members in Utah jack

23:40

rhodes and enoch and decided that they

23:42

couldn't go ahead without a Pony Express

23:44

station using donated barn logs Jack and

23:48

Dean designed and built a replica

23:50

station within a Corral for horses

23:54

furnished by Joe hatch our members came

23:57

from all across the trail to help out

23:58

and Floyd and voodoo are two of the most

24:00

photographed horses anywhere they can be

24:04

found in photo albums all over the war

24:06

old as Olympic visitors and athletes

24:08

from everywhere stopped warm by the fire

24:10

and learn a little pony express history

24:13

Olympic president Jacques roga Canadian

24:16

figure skating champion Jamie Soleil and

24:18

the king of Sweden were included in our

24:21

visitors that year another big win for

24:23

the Association after the winter

24:26

olympics had packed up and gone the

24:28

cabin was picked up by a large crane and

24:30

loaded on a flatbed trailer for a windy

24:32

trip to salt lake city it now stands

24:35

interpreted as a Pony Express station

24:37

near the spectacular bronze statue by

24:39

dr. Albert Fairbanks at this is the

24:42

place heritage park on the east bench of

24:44

salt lake city make sure you pay that

24:46

area visit when you're in utah last year

24:50

in 2009 we conducted and celebrated our

24:53

30th annual rewrite of the Pony Express

24:55

trail approximately 500 horses and

24:58

riders almost 2,000 miles day and night

25:03

for 10 days between st. Joseph and

25:06

Sacramento every year for 30 years in

25:09

Utah alone we've worked with film crews

25:12

from Italy Germany and England horsemen

25:15

have come from Australia South Africa

25:17

England Germany the Czech Republic and

25:19

elsewhere to take part in our rewrites

25:21

the only 2010 were celebrating the 150th

25:25

anniversary of the historic events of

25:27

eighteen sixty thank you for joining us

25:30

today and stay tuned to see what we come

25:32

up with next

25:39

Thank You Pat I forgot to mention too we

25:43

especially want to thank the people here

25:45

at the US Postal Museum for their

25:48

hosting this event and Erin mar he's

25:52

superintendent of the Intermountain

25:54

region long distance trails office is

25:56

going to give you a few words and Aaron

25:59

if you would be sure and recognize your

26:01

people that you have here today to

26:10

afternoon everybody it's been wonderful

26:15

just walking through the museum this

26:16

morning and seeing a lot of the friends

26:20

in the in the Association I've seen a

26:22

lot of people's faces light up when they

26:24

see me they don't usually see me in

26:26

uniform I'm not usually a uniform to

26:29

employ we usually have in the field

26:31

walking over the trail so it's been

26:33

really nice to see people recognize the

26:35

National Park Service I really don't

26:36

wear the uniform much at all it's very

26:39

infrequent and this is one of those rare

26:41

occasions I'm here to tell you all

26:44

yesterday shrink that's especially when

26:55

you wear once at once a year let's thank

27:00

you very much Jim at thank you very much

27:02

for for the great words you gave today

27:04

the national park service is really

27:07

proud to be a partner in this in this

27:09

event and in dumb in the development of

27:11

the National Historic Trail and we've

27:14

been a partner for quite a while in the

27:16

development of Charleston to established

27:18

in 92 and the Association has just been

27:22

a fantastic partner in this and I just

27:25

want to really acknowledge the great

27:26

work you've done and also acknowledge

27:28

the great work you've done for the

27:31

assessments and sesquicentennial

27:32

celebration it's really wonderful to see

27:35

see this type of dedication particularly

27:38

I want to recognize them kennen our

27:40

leader Martin you've just done such a

27:42

fantastic

27:44

I can tell you cannon arleta in

27:51

particular you one of the most tenacious

27:52

and dedicated and devoted people I've

27:55

ever come across in the trails and I

27:58

this this in particular the Association

28:01

has done so much to do this to get this

28:03

event here today but um I know it

28:06

couldn't have happened without the hard

28:07

work can release thank you very much

28:09

just work you've done here the

28:13

Association you've heard the stuff that

28:15

they've done over the last couple of

28:16

years over the last 30 more than 30

28:18

years and it's really noteworthy there's

28:21

there's just been so much that's been

28:23

that's happened across the trail because

28:25

of the work and the partnership that the

28:27

Association has been involved with

28:29

they've talked about the rear I'd which

28:31

has just been a great way to really

28:34

bring attention to the trail and to

28:36

commemorate this short-lived event in

28:40

our history but to really raise

28:43

awareness across the length of the trail

28:45

and now we're bringing it here to

28:47

Washington so the rewrite has just been

28:49

a fantastic event in helping people to

28:52

recognize the significance of the trail

28:55

they do other things too they bring the

28:57

trail to schools it raised kids

29:00

awareness of our real complex history

29:03

tomorrow and that's a real valuable

29:06

thing because kids don't really

29:09

understand understand just how important

29:12

this was to our nation's history and

29:14

just bringing history the kids alone is

29:17

important but to be able to bring this

29:19

type of this type of particular

29:22

historical event is really no worthy I

29:24

know they bring their horses and they

29:26

bring all of the accoutrements and that

29:28

really gets it fits charged up so that's

29:30

a really exciting thing to happen

29:32

there's a lot of charity work

29:33

Association doesn't kids also and that's

29:36

that's a really noteworthy and know

29:38

where the contribution that the

29:39

association makes there's another very

29:45

important thing that they do and their

29:46

association is a very effective advocate

29:50

for the trail and this is not only going

29:55

to Congress and making Congress aware of

29:58

the needs for the trail but it's also

30:01

just advocating within the public for

30:03

preservation for developing sites all

30:07

the things that you all do it's so

30:09

important keeping the trail live and to

30:12

making it more accessible and available

30:14

to a larger public so that's a very

30:18

noteworthy thing perhaps most important

30:22

from our perspective of these in the

30:23

National Park Service is that the

30:26

association was instrumental in getting

30:28

the trail established as a national

30:29

historic trail at 1992 and that's pretty

30:36

noteworthy because there aren't that

30:37

many trails in the system there are only

30:39

asking 20 Nationals for trails in the

30:41

system 19 you and I steve elkington

30:46

who's our program manager from

30:49

Washington unless did ask me to

30:50

introduce people so he do that real

30:52

quickly here with my colleague truck

30:54

Milliken who is our interpreter

30:56

specialist in the office I don't see

30:58

anybody else here from the National Park

31:00

Service I think there's a three of us

31:02

and I think we'll have some additional

31:05

representatives tomorrow when we do the

31:07

ceremony outside but they're 19 trails

31:11

in the system so it's a very precious

31:13

resource it's a very precious element in

31:17

our entire national park service system

31:20

in our entire federal system the

31:22

recognizing significant advancement

31:24

history so getting the trail established

31:27

was a very significant event it's an

31:32

incredible resource for those of you who

31:34

know it very well you know exactly what

31:35

we're talking about for those of you who

31:37

don't learn more about it I think will

31:41

be really amazed at at the resources

31:45

that we have this is a trail that

31:48

stretches over 2,000 miles across eight

31:51

states it offers people just an

31:55

absolutely incredible journey goes

31:57

through the flood plain of Mississippi

31:59

of the Mississippi River over the plains

32:03

of Kansas goes across the along the

32:07

great Platte River Road in Nebraska

32:09

crosses the Rocky Mountains crosses

32:13

Great Western Desert in Utah Nevada goes

32:15

across the Sierra Nevada as Jim was

32:18

talking about and it ends in San

32:21

Francisco great metropolis it's really

32:26

an amazing journey and you know we've

32:28

got many sites along the way where you

32:30

can visit and learn about the trail but

32:33

travel the trail and then you start to

32:35

really understand you start to

32:37

understand what the history is all about

32:40

and that's the wonderful thing about

32:41

trails because if you're if you're say

32:45

in the floodplain of Mississippi River

32:47

in st. Joe's are in Vietnam with you

32:52

know i think is with them i was going to

32:55

ask you if i'm pronouncing it correctly

32:56

or not um you can't really understand

33:01

the trail unless you've been on the

33:03

crest of the rocky mountains or unless

33:05

you've been in the crest of the Sierra

33:06

Sierra Nevadas you really don't get an

33:10

understanding unless you travel the

33:12

whole trail unless you experience the

33:14

footsteps of the people or the horse

33:17

steps of the people that actually travel

33:18

down the trail that's what's the great

33:21

thing about trails it really ties all

33:23

these disparate resources together and

33:25

really gets you within the perspective

33:30

of the people that really traveled

33:33

cross this route back to the early 1860s

33:37

so travel the trail you start to really

33:39

understand what the Pony Express was all

33:42

about the National Historic Trail really

33:47

pursues that it helps people to try and

33:49

understand the trail by experiencing the

33:52

trail but getting out on the ground and

33:54

actually being there and that's what we

33:57

try and do in the partnership that we

33:59

have the National Park Service has with

34:01

the Pony Express association with the

34:03

NBA with our other federal partners like

34:07

the plan management address bar service

34:10

with a multitude of private land owners

34:13

across the trail we try to help people

34:16

preserve elements of the trail and we

34:21

try to help them develop it for visitor

34:23

use that people who come and actually

34:25

experience the trail and there's a lot

34:29

that's gone on the trail there are a lot

34:32

of places where there's nothing left of

34:36

what existed back in the 1860s but there

34:41

is some things that are still there

34:42

there are some some great resources out

34:44

there go to the Western Desert in Utah

34:49

Nevada and go over the Bureau of Land

34:51

managements historic backcountry by the

34:53

way and you really get a feeling for

34:55

what the trail was like your land

34:59

management also just spectacular work in

35:03

protecting and preserving South Pass

35:06

never been to South Pass one of the most

35:09

important sites in American history i

35:11

would suggest i'm sure many people who

35:14

room would agree with me this is one of

35:16

the most amazing sites for western

35:18

migration Pony Express and for just

35:22

understanding the course of American

35:23

history where so much happened such a

35:26

short short kind of funnel or conduit of

35:30

landscape

35:33

so these are opportunities to really

35:35

really experience the trail or what as

35:37

it was back in eighteen sixty we in the

35:42

National Park Service work with a number

35:44

of different partners to help people not

35:46

only to go to these precious sites but

35:48

to follow the trail and we've done that

35:50

a number of different ways we have

35:51

developed an order or tour route so that

35:55

in areas where you possibly can't see

35:57

the original trail at least you could

35:59

follow the route and we've got highway

36:01

sign is to help people follow the route

36:03

from moms from along the whole 2000

36:07

model corridor we've also developed auto

36:10

to route guides we're in the process of

36:12

developing the guides for people to

36:14

follow these and direct them to areas

36:16

where you still can see elements of the

36:18

trail or where perhaps local museums or

36:21

local long local visitors centers can

36:25

help you understand the local history

36:27

associated with the trail are the larger

36:30

history of the trail through the state

36:32

and I'm really proud of the effort that

36:34

truck milliken has put into developing

36:37

these and he's in the process right now

36:39

of completing some additional ones

36:41

eventually we're going to have the

36:42

routes you oughta tour guides to the

36:44

entire through the entire length of the

36:46

trail these are free to the public if

36:48

you visit a site along the trail chances

36:51

are you'll be able to pick one up and

36:52

really give you a sense of how to cross

36:55

the landscape and where to go in

36:58

different states to visit trail

37:00

resources we're doing a lot of

37:03

interpretive media along that road got a

37:05

lot of wayside exhibits standard types

37:08

of inter tools that you go to parks or

37:10

you go to other plans and all right or

37:12

other places for that matter you can

37:13

learn about a particular resource and

37:16

see the resource and really get a

37:18

contextual understanding from for what

37:21

you're what you're seeing we've got

37:23

other type of interpretive media we've

37:25

got web pages you can visit NPS gov / p

37:29

oex is our webpage and that will link to

37:33

the Pony Express association's webpage

37:35

or i believe by subversives that we can

37:37

say you'll be able to navigate through

37:40

the wealth of information about the

37:42

trail so there's a lot of ways now you

37:44

can experience the trail

37:46

um there's a lot to look forward to also

37:51

there is a lot that we collectively

37:54

everyone in this room or association

37:57

members in this room and hopefully a

37:58

large amount of you were are gaining

38:00

some interest and some some knowledge

38:03

about the trail and look forward to

38:05

participating in there's still a lot of

38:09

work to be done preserve the trail

38:12

there's still a lot of resources out

38:14

there there's stuff that people know

38:17

about we haven't done enough to actually

38:19

protect and to put mechanisms in place

38:22

to protect the trail we're still out

38:25

there identifying segments of the

38:27

trailer we're identifying important

38:30

sites along the trail there are over 170

38:32

stations or way sides where where riders

38:35

changed or horse has changed these are

38:39

important sites there aren't many left

38:40

on the ground are some aren't many but

38:44

we we know the general location of these

38:46

and we're pursuing archaeological

38:50

investigations for example working with

38:52

the central wyoming college to do some

38:54

to do investigations of archaeological

38:57

sites along the trail to help understand

38:59

the material culture of what these what

39:02

happened at these stations we're working

39:06

with several State Historic Preservation

39:09

offices to document these sites and get

39:14

them on the National Register of

39:15

Historic Places this is a critical tool

39:19

that we have to help in raising the

39:22

public's awareness of the importance of

39:24

these sites and to help and putting some

39:28

element of protection towards towards

39:32

these sites and getting cut off now that

39:35

I'll go very quickly so there are a

39:39

number of different types of things that

39:40

we're after to try and preserve try and

39:42

preserve the trail and to to make sure

39:45

that it's there for future generations

39:46

we're also working to UM we're also

39:50

working with the Bureau of Land

39:52

Management in particular to help people

39:54

to understand that there are other

39:55

elements and preserving

39:57

besides just a tread on the ground or

40:00

besides the astore excitement there are

40:02

other intrinsic qualities of the

40:03

landscape that help people to understand

40:06

and to experience what the trail was

40:09

like back in the 1860s and that's an

40:11

important aspect of this because now

40:13

we're looking not just at the tread but

40:15

we're looking at a corridor that has

40:17

many different aspects that can help

40:18

people understand it to experience to

40:20

have that vicarious experience of

40:23

traveling on the trail we're working

40:26

with different entities to develop

40:28

visitor use that people come and visit

40:30

the trail we're doing much more signing

40:33

we've developed local tour route

40:34

signings that people can actually follow

40:36

closer than highways but actually get

40:39

off onto dirt roads or onto local roads

40:41

you can actually get does that much

40:44

closer to the original route and we're

40:47

also doing the additional law tort or

40:48

route guides that trucks working on we

40:51

expect and this year to put out the Utah

40:53

guide and the Nevada guide so we're

40:56

getting close to finishing California

40:57

will be nets and we hope to have that

40:58

that done sometime hopefully before 2014

41:02

we're also reaching out to

41:05

underrepresented communities this was

41:07

not barren they can land that the riders

41:10

went over we've held a tribe of

41:12

listening sessions to hear what uh what

41:15

Native American concerns are about are

41:19

not concerns but how they saw this

41:21

history and what contributions they

41:23

might be able to make to UM to the the

41:26

comprehensive telling of the story and

41:29

then one final thing some of you may

41:31

know Public Lands Act of 2009 all

41:34

traditional studies of the immigration

41:38

roots and the Pony Express with

41:40

intention of telling the much more

41:42

comprehensive and complete story of the

41:46

of the trail and for the Pony Express

41:49

trail there's at least one route from

41:51

with ena to Troy in Kansas it's called

41:54

the southern alternate route it's only

41:55

20 miles long it's a route we know that

41:58

riders used but it's not part of the

42:00

National Historic Trail we're going to

42:01

study that and determine whether meets

42:03

the criteria for the

42:05

rail system so having said that I just

42:09

want to say congratulations to everybody

42:10

for the hard work that everyone's put

42:12

together to two halves it have this

42:15

conference here today or have this

42:17

workshop here today all the things we

42:20

talked about all the things that are

42:21

that my fellow panelists have talked

42:23

about I'm convinced that uh 50 years

42:27

from now and in 20 years of 2060 we're

42:30

going to have a fantastic Bicentennial

42:32

and I think people are going to be just

42:34

as excited then as they are now thank

42:36

you very much the map is here we wanted

42:50

to give a special presentation map to

42:54

the postal museum or display if they can

42:57

display it in the future and if any of

43:01

you have any questions there's I think

43:03

six of the eight Pony Express trail

43:06

states here feel free to ask anybody in

43:08

a red shirt and brown vest or Aaron if

43:11

you have to take your question Steve

43:12

thanks again for showing up and any of

43:17

you that before you leave like you said

43:19

to ask questions if somebody doesn't

43:21

know they'll refer you to somebody that

43:23

hopefully will have an answer for you

43:25

the map Kim and if any of you can make

43:31

it over to Constitution what is it that

43:36

Senate Park over here by the Capitol

43:39

tomorrow lawn or later I'm going to talk

43:42

about it Union Station plasm close by

43:47

we're going to do a horse exchange and

43:50

take some thank you letters to the

43:52

congressional people of the eight states

43:55

that are part of the Pony Express

44:03

okay this map has just been done listen

44:08

here we're going to give to the Postal

44:10

Museum this is the first one of its kind

44:14

we just got it Saturday afternoon and so

44:17

it's brand new and we're quite excited

44:20

about it what we tried to do is put the

44:24

map there are a lot of these older maps

44:26

do not have the cut-offs on them this

44:29

does have whatever was just talking

44:32

about the on the other end there towards

44:36

actually showing on here we're really

44:40

excited about it we've been working on

44:41

this for about four years we build in

44:45

try to get about two stations from each

44:48

state except for our colorado and

44:51

missouri because they only have one or

44:54

two and so that's where we're at right

44:56

now i won't bore you anymore but we want

45:00

you folks to have this and very well

45:12

what a fabulous gift my name is Jeff me

45:15

time the school and tour coordinator

45:16

here at the National Postal Museum and

45:18

was put in charge of this Pony Express

45:20

redesigned exhibit that we have for the

45:22

150th anniversary and just from my

45:25

personal perspective I think you can see

45:26

that I enjoy the Pony Express story

45:29

quite a bit too and I've been making

45:30

jokes today that my shirts not quite as

45:32

red as everybody else's maybe it's

45:33

because I'm a city slicker mine comes

45:34

out a little bit tanker i'm not sure but

45:37

this is fascinating and actually one of

45:40

the things that I'm really excited about

45:41

is geography of the route itself we've

45:43

been currently working on a map project

45:45

right now and we've been trying to

45:47

actually turn a map of the route into a

45:50

three-dimensional kind of object that we

45:52

can actually touch and feel and compare

45:54

the geography of Kansas and Nebraska to

45:57

some of the geography of the Tahoe

46:00

region and some of the different lands

46:02

out in Nevada and Utah and to me this is

46:05

um such a good and useful in to land

46:09

piece of information and honestly I

46:11

would like to thank everyone that's a

46:12

member of the National Pony Express

46:14

Association I'm wearing my badge i

46:16

joined the association last year as well

46:19

i'm very interested in how people come

46:22

in and interact with history and

46:24

interact with the Pony Express in

46:26

particular especially since it was such

46:28

a short-lived business endeavor and

46:30

we've established that it wasn't a

46:32

financially profitable business endeavor

46:35

but the story itself has grown larger

46:38

than the actual facts and I think that

46:40

it's really exciting to see how people

46:41

actually come in two places like museums

46:43

and engage in these various aspects of

46:47

our history and when people walk in and

46:50

they start tours with me I always ask

46:51

what do they expect to see in a postal

46:53

museum and everybody since dreams and I

46:55

say yep we've got some stamps and by the

46:57

end of my tour everyone's a stamp

46:58

collector but the ever the other thing

47:00

that everyone expects to see is the Pony

47:01

Express and I think that it's a story

47:03

that we actually need to tell and we had

47:05

mentioned that unfortunately the post

47:09

office department at the time did not

47:10

offer a contract to Russell majors in

47:12

Waddell on perhaps they should have but

47:15

they have actually printed several

47:17

different stamps using the Pony Express

47:19

story as a way to promote their own

47:21

own inefficiency so there's various

47:24

aspects of this story and you know it's

47:27

interesting because every time I do

47:28

tours in the Pony Express a gallery it

47:30

seems like everybody's got a different

47:32

take on it um whether or not Buffalo

47:34

Bill was a Pony Express rider I'm I'm

47:37

still not entirely convinced I do know

47:39

that he paid for the personal

47:41

autobiography of Alexander majors about

47:45

30 years after the story took place

47:47

memories get fuzzy hey it's neat to

47:51

think that in a way we're all Pony

47:53

Express riders and I'm excited to be

47:55

part of the moment and part of this

47:57

anniversary and hopefully I'll be around

47:58

for the 200th to hope to see you there

48:02

right all right thanks everyone thank

48:05

you very much come view all right and

48:16

I'm just gonna give anyone the

48:17

opportunity for questions again if any

48:21

of you public that's leaving here today

48:24

we've got a special pin for you that

48:26

your map you'll get it a t2 door all

48:31

right so are there any other questions

48:32

here's who worked on it National

48:48

Geographic took on the task of answering

48:53

some of those questions in about

48:54

nineteen seventy eight when we first

48:56

began this and they turned up no

48:58

evidence of women writers or of

49:00

african-american writers there were

49:03

Hispanics but sorry that's but it looks

49:07

good on TV anyone else

49:41

alright you have another one I know the

49:48

old says it that the boys were not to

49:51

use they were not to swear or use

49:55

cussing but I wonder how they kept those

49:58

horses under control without cuss words

50:01

haha no they were just well-trained

50:11

horses in any more questions one more

50:23

what was the true relationship between

50:25

the Pony Express and the Native

50:27

Americans because i know in film they're

50:30

portrayed is like fighting and you know

50:33

battles and preventing the mail from

50:35

actually getting through but what was

50:36

the accurate story with that the Paiute

50:40

Indians were in Nevada I think I got the

50:42

Paiute Indians were the biggest problem

50:45

with the Paiute Indians in nevada and

50:47

yeah there was there with conflicts

50:49

between the I think it started more with

50:52

the settlers than really the point

50:54

Express riders there was no infraction

50:55

there so much but there was a conflict

50:59

you know I can't remember the whole

51:01

story and I could pick one up but it was

51:03

in a typical typical white man probably

51:06

taking advantage of somebody and so

51:08

anyway that led into and escalated into

51:10

other problems and so the Pony Express

51:13

stations were easy targets you had maybe

51:16

one person they're maintaining the

51:17

horses maybe 20 the other great coup was

51:21

horses so they they liked the idea of

51:24

hitting some of the Pony Express

51:25

stations to get some of the horses so

51:28

some of the station station keepers were

51:30

killed and there was there was some

51:32

problems with the with the Paiute

51:33

Indians through Nevada I think the it

51:37

was like a militia that came out of

51:38

fornia that kind of came in and stepped

51:42

out most of that but it was resolved but

51:45

that was one of the biggest problems

51:46

financially for I mentioned that it was

51:48

a disaster as Y as far as financing the

51:51

loss of horses and the loss of stations

51:54

that were burnt down and and the loss of

51:57

the station keepers and constantly

51:59

cleaning trying to replenish those those

52:02

stations was a financial burden so there

52:05

were there were Indian problems yes just

52:13

to tear off of that a little bit um I

52:15

mentioned that we just held on some

52:18

tribal listening sessions we we held a

52:20

listening session in Lawrence Kansas out

52:25

of the Haskell Indian School and in reno

52:28

nevada and we had a lot of paiute scum

52:30

really interesting but they had they had

52:35

a couple of messages that they wanted to

52:37

literally convey and this is just

52:39

initiating that discussion now we're

52:41

just we're just starting to it out reach

52:44

to the tribal communities but on they

52:46

had two things in particular that they

52:48

wanted to talk about first visit on that

52:52

all lands were home to somebody this was

52:56

their loud and it's not a question of

53:01

what exists now for them it's just they

53:03

want people to understand that this was

53:06

land that was well known and that they

53:09

use the land and second of all that the

53:11

relations with the the people that came

53:14

across whether traveling across are

53:17

ultimately settling the relations are

53:19

very complex and they talked a lot about

53:23

the UM about helping people helping

53:27

people that came through their country

53:28

and knowing people and having a lot of

53:33

social intercourse with people and

53:35

exchanging gifts extent exchanging

53:37

supplies so that the that there were

53:42

conflicts then there's no question about

53:43

that there were conflicts along all of

53:45

the trails but um that's one message

53:48

that really came through in in

53:51

listening to tribal people tell their

53:54

stories was that there there was a lot

53:56

of contact and there was a lot of mutual

54:00

respect to x 4 for a lot of the native

54:02

groups there so it was really

54:04

fascinating to hear that and very very

54:06

enlightening also to hear that that the

54:08

relationship actually quite complex

54:15

alright we have time for one or two more

54:18

questions if anyone has any all right

54:22

one more

54:32

wonderful presentations overall just I

54:34

guess a quick question concerning the

54:37

context of the time there of course the

54:39

nation was very quickly approaching the

54:42

Civil War I'd like a debaters in here

54:47

hear any comments with respect to

54:49

California at that time I further case

54:52

made that the Pony Express played some

54:54

role in helping to ensure the california

54:57

state in the Union camp during the war

54:59

just because there was a closer linkage

55:02

than before with what was going on here

55:05

in the nation's capital in the eastern

55:07

part of the United States and general

55:08

I'd just be interested in that here any

55:10

thoughts on that if that's accurate or

55:13

overblown I'll answer that the other

55:16

thing you should know is I'm not a

55:17

historian of the group so but yes it was

55:22

a very important issue and at that time

55:24

the California was more interested in

55:27

the election was Lincoln going to be in

55:29

office or not that was the issue and so

55:32

when when Lincoln became president there

55:36

was a special again this is the way I

55:39

heard it and I'm sticking to my story

55:40

but there was a special if I'm not right

55:44

there was a special run up horses set up

55:47

just to carry that information and they

55:50

carried that information to California

55:52

who was waiting to hear what were we

55:55

going to have Abraham Lincoln in as

55:57

president or not and if I again if I'm

55:59

not mistaken it was done in record time

56:01

I believe in about seven days instead of

56:03

the normal 10 and and and that was a

56:06

very important and turning point for

56:08

California you're right California was a

56:11

state that was kind of bouncing back and

56:13

forth what were they going to do and so

56:16

when the word came in it kind of pushed

56:19

him toward a free state and that's the

56:21

way it was it played out but yeah a very

56:24

important ride Jeff well actually I'd

56:26

like to offer something to that too when

56:29

we were actually doing research for the

56:31

exhibit last fall one of the things I

56:33

was tasked with finding was newspaper

56:35

accounts from the daily Alton newspaper

56:37

which was based out of I think

56:39

sacramento at the time and

56:42

the neat thing about the daily Alta in

56:44

the 1860s was that it maintained a

56:46

column for news that had been delivered

56:48

by the Pony Express it was one of the

56:50

newspapers ways of actually promoting

56:52

the use of the service itself and I had

56:55

to find some particular interesting

56:57

stories so what do you do when in doubt

56:58

when you're looking for dates in history

57:01

always check your birthday first right

57:03

so my birthday is November 25th and I

57:05

pulled it up and it happened to be the

57:07

day that that pony express rider brought

57:10

into Sacramento and was delivering the

57:14

news of Lincoln's election and it talks

57:15

about how the pony was draped in all

57:18

kinds of ribbons and all kinds of stuff

57:21

and I tried really hard to get that

57:23

personal connection to my birthday but

57:26

was vetoed out but you can actually see

57:28

a copy of the daily Alta in there right

57:30

now I think it's one of the dates from

57:31

March so different kind of take on that

57:35

story I guess all right so we are out of

57:40

time for a question and answer session

57:43

but we'd like to invite everyone out

57:45

into the atrium of the museum next

57:47

there's some object exploration going on

57:50

out there and if you have more questions

57:52

that you'd like to ask sure everyone

57:54

will be available for more questions and

57:56

don't forget to get a free pin on the

57:59

way out and thank you everyone so much

58:01

for coming